33,672 research outputs found

    Arrays of Josephson junctions in an environment with vanishing impedance

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    The Hamiltonian operator for an unbiased array of Josephson junctions with gate voltages is constructed when only Cooper pair tunnelling and charging effects are taken into account. The supercurrent through the system and the pumped current induced by changing the gate voltages periodically are discussed with an emphasis on the inaccuracies in the Cooper pair pumping. Renormalisation of the Hamiltonian operator is used in order to reliably parametrise the effects due to inhomogeneity in the array and non-ideal gating sequences. The relatively simple model yields an explicit, testable prediction based on three experimentally motivated and determinable parameters.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, uses RevTeX and epsfig, Revised version, Better readability and some new result

    Case studies of clear air turbulence using the diagnostic Richardson Number Tendency formulation

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    The results of four case studies of clear air turbulence (CAT) using the diagnostic Richardson number tendency (DRT) formulation are highlighted. The performance of this technique in resolving regions of documented CAT encounters is encouraging. Its operational adaptability appears particularly attractive in that input data can be supplied by the currently operational rawinsonde system. Two CAT indices are calculated deterministically, sensing synoptic scale changes in static stability and vertical wind shear conductive for supporting mesoscale CAT layers. These two indices reveal volumes of the troposphere which act as source regions for patches of CAT. The first, the time to reach the critical Richardson number necessary for the initiation of turbulent conditions, was first used by Oard (1974). A second index is devised which is an adaptation of Roach's (1970) work relating synoptic scale and mesoscale energetical coupling and gives more information on the relative intensity of these source regions. The output from the DRT computer module highlights specific regions of the atmosphere which can be interpreted operationally in terms of a CAT encounter probability

    Aqueous Alteration in the Kuiper Belt: Evidence from Hydrated Interplanetary Dust Particles

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    Edgeworth-Kuiper belt objects (EKBOs) formed in the outer reaches of the protoplanetary disk and thus avoided much of the high tempera-ture processing experienced by bodies in the inner solar system. For this reason, they contain a wealth of information on the nature of nebular solids and the chemical conditions in the earliest solar system. Astronomical observations of EKBOs have been limited largely to the surface chemistry of the ices covering these small and difficult to observe bodies. The mineralogy of EKBO objects are poorly known, but clues regarding their mineralogical makeup come from studies of samples from short period comets (e.g. Wild2), and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) produced by collisions in the Kuiper belt. Interplanetary dust particles from objects in the solar system (mainly comets and asteroids) spiral in to-wards the Sun under the influence of Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag forces and accumulate solar flare energetic particle tracks. Recent work has shown that the observed solar flare track densities (~1010-1011/sq.cm) in these IDPs are ~two orders of magnitude higher than expected if they were derived from main belt asteroids or Jupiter family comets and thus require an origin from outer solar system source bodies such as EKBOs. The track-rich IDPs include representatives from the two major groups of IDPs: the chondritic-porous, anhydrous IDPs and the chondritic-smooth, hydrated IDPs, although rare IDPs with mineralogies intermediate between these two groups are known. Here, we report on the mineralogy, composition, organic matter content, and isotopic characteristics of track-rich hydrated IDPs, and implications for aqueous alteration in outer solar system bodies

    The Flow of a Viscous Compressible Fluid Through a Very Narrow Gap

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    The effect of compressibility on the pressure distribution in the narrow gap between a rotating cylinder and a plane in a viscous fluid was studied by Taylor and Saffman [1] during an investigation of the centripetal pump effect discovered by Reiner [2]

    Large isotope effect on TcT_c in cuprates despite of a small electron-phonon coupling

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    We calculate the isotope coefficients α\alpha and α\alpha^\ast for the superconducting critical temperature TcT_c and the pseudogap temperature TT^\ast in a mean-field treatment of the t-J model including phonons. The pseudogap phase is identified with the dd-charge-density wave (dd-CDW) phase in this model. Using the small electron-phonon coupling constant λd0.02\lambda_d \sim 0.02 obtained previously in LDA calculations in YBa2_2Cu3_3O7_7, α\alpha^{\ast} is negative but negligible small whereas α\alpha increases from about 0.03 at optimal doping to values around 1 at small dopings in agreement with the general trend observed in many cuprates. Using a simple phase fluctuation model where the dd-CDW has only short-range correlations it is shown that the large increase of α\alpha at low dopings is rather universal and does not depend on the existence of sharp peaks in the density of states in the pseudogap state or on specific values of the phonon cutoff. It rather is caused by the large depletion of spectral weight at low frequencies by the dd-CDW and thus should also occur in other realizations of the pseudogap.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, to be publ. in PR

    An assessment of key model parametric uncertainties in projections of Greenland Ice Sheet behavior

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    Lack of knowledge about the values of ice sheet model input parameters introduces substantial uncertainty into projections of Greenland Ice Sheet contributions to future sea level rise. Computer models of ice sheet behavior provide one of several means of estimating future sea level rise due to mass loss from ice sheets. Such models have many input parameters whose values are not well known. Recent studies have investigated the effects of these parameters on model output, but the range of potential future sea level increases due to model parametric uncertainty has not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that this range is large, using a 100-member perturbed-physics ensemble with the SICOPOLIS ice sheet model. Each model run is spun up over 125 000 yr using geological forcings and subsequently driven into the future using an asymptotically increasing air temperature anomaly curve. All modeled ice sheets lose mass after 2005 AD. Parameters controlling surface melt dominate the model response to temperature change. After culling the ensemble to include only members that give reasonable ice volumes in 2005 AD, the range of projected sea level rise values in 2100 AD is ~40 % or more of the median. Data on past ice sheet behavior can help reduce this uncertainty, but none of our ensemble members produces a reasonable ice volume change during the mid-Holocene, relative to the present. This problem suggests that the model's exponential relation between temperature and precipitation does not hold during the Holocene, or that the central-Greenland temperature forcing curve used to drive the model is not representative of conditions around the ice margin at this time (among other possibilities). Our simulations also lack certain observed physical processes that may tend to enhance the real ice sheet's response. Regardless, this work has implications for other studies that use ice sheet models to project or hindcast the behavior of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Evolution from a molecular Rydberg gas to an ultracold plasma in a seeded supersonic expansion of NO

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    We report the spontaneous formation of a plasma from a gas of cold Rydberg molecules. Double-resonant laser excitation promotes nitric oxide, cooled to 1 K in a seeded supersonic molecular beam, to single Rydberg states extending as deep as 80 cm1^{-1} below the lowest ionization threshold. The density of excited molecules in the illuminated volume is as high as 1 x 1013^{13} cm3^{-3}. This population evolves to produce prompt free electrons and a durable cold plasma of electrons and intact NO+^{+} ions.Comment: 4 pages (two column) 3 figures; smaller figure files, corrected typo
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