55 research outputs found

    Location of catalase in crystalline peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha

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    We have studied the intraperoxisomal location of catalase in peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha by (immuno)cytochemical means. In completely crystalline peroxisomes, in which the crystalline matrix is composed of octameric alcohol oxidase (AO) molecules, most of the catalase protein is located in a narrow zone between the crystalloid and the peroxisomal membrane. In non-crystalline organelles the enzyme was present throughout the peroxisomal matrix. Other peroxisomal matrix enzymes studied for comparison, namely dihydroxyacetone synthase, amine oxidase and malate synthase, all were present throughout the AO crystalloid. The advantage of location of catalase at the edges of the AO crystalloids for growth of the organism on methanol is discussed.

    Essential role of PI3-kinase and phospholipase A2 in Dictyostelium discoideum chemotaxis

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    Chemotaxis toward different cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations was tested in Dictyostelium discoideum cell lines with deletion of specific genes together with drugs to inhibit one or all combinations of the second-messenger systems PI3-kinase, phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and cytosolic Ca2+. The results show that inhibition of either PI3-kinase or PLA2 inhibits chemotaxis in shallow cAMP gradients, whereas both enzymes must be inhibited to prevent chemotaxis in steep cAMP gradients, suggesting that PI3-kinase and PLA2 are two redundant mediators of chemotaxis. Mutant cells lacking PLC activity have normal chemotaxis; however, additional inhibition of PLA2 completely blocks chemotaxis, whereas inhibition of PI3-kinase has no effect, suggesting that all chemotaxis in plc-null cells is mediated by PLA2. Cells with deletion of the IP3 receptor have the opposite phenotype: chemotaxis is completely dependent on PI3-kinase and insensitive to PLA2 inhibitors. This suggest that PI3-kinase–mediated chemotaxis is regulated by PLC, probably through controlling PIP2 levels and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) activity, whereas chemotaxis mediated by PLA2 appears to be controlled by intracellular Ca2+

    Coupled Excitable Ras and F-actin activation mediate spontaneous pseudopod formation and directed cell movement

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    Many eukaryotic cells regulate their mobility by external cues. Genetic studies have identified &gt;100 components that participate in chemotaxis, which hinders the identification of the conceptual framework of how cells sense and respond to shallow chemical gradients. The activation of Ras occurs during basal locomotion and is an essential connector between receptor and cytoskeleton during chemotaxis. Using a sensitive assay for activated Ras, we show here that activation of Ras and F-actin forms two excitable systems that are coupled through mutual positive feedback and memory. This coupled excitable system leads to short-lived patches of activated Ras and associated F-actin that precede the extension of protrusions. In buffer, excitability starts frequently with Ras activation in the back/side of the cell or with F-actin in the front of the cell. In a shallow gradient of chemoattractant, local Ras activation triggers full excitation of Ras and subsequently F-actin at the side of the cell facing the chemoattractant, leading to directed pseudopod extension and chemotaxis. A computational model shows that the coupled excitable Ras/F-actin system forms the driving heart for the ordered-stochastic extension of pseudopods in buffer and for efficient directional extension of pseudopods in chemotactic gradients.</p

    Four key signaling pathways mediating chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

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    Chemotaxis is the ability of cells to move in the direction of an external gradient of signaling molecules. Cells are guided by actin-filled protrusions in the front, whereas myosin filaments retract the rear of the cell. Previous work demonstrated that chemotaxis of unpolarized amoeboid Dictyostelium discoideum cells is mediated by two parallel pathways, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Here, we show that polarized cells exhibit very good chemotaxis with inhibited PI3K and PLA2 activity. Using genetic screens, we demonstrate that this activity is mediated by a soluble guanylyl cyclase, providing two signals. The protein localizes to the leading edge where it interacts with actin filaments, whereas the cyclic guanosine monophosphate product induces myosin filaments in the rear of the cell. We conclude that chemotaxis is mediated by multiple signaling pathways regulating protrusions at the front and rear of the cell. Cells that express only rear activity are polarized but do not exhibit chemotaxis, whereas cells with only front signaling are unpolarized but undergo chemotaxis

    Chemoattractants and chemorepellents act by inducing opposite polarity in phospholipase C and PI3-kinase signaling

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    During embryonic development, cell movement is orchestrated by a multitude of attractants and repellents. Chemoattractants applied as a gradient, such as cAMP with Dictyostelium discoideum or fMLP with neutrophils, induce the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase at the front of the cell, leading to the localized depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P(2)) and the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI[3,4,5]P(3)). Using D. discoideum, we show that chemorepellent cAMP analogues induce localized inhibition of PLC, thereby reversing the polarity of PI(4,5)P(2). This leads to the accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P(3) at the rear of the cell, and chemotaxis occurs away from the source. We conclude that a PLC polarity switch controls the response to attractants and repellents

    Rap1-dependent pathways coordinate cytokinesis in Dictyostelium

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    Cytokinesis is the final step of mitosis when a mother cell is separated into two daughter cells. Major cytoskeletal changes are essential for cytokinesis; it is, however, not well understood how the microtubules and actomyosin cytoskeleton are exactly regulated in time and space. In this paper, we show that during the early stages of cytokinesis, in rounded-up Dictyostelium discoideum cells, the small G-protein Rap1 is activated uniformly at the cell cortex. When cells begin to elongate, active Rap1 becomes restricted from the furrow region, where the myosin contractile ring is subsequently formed. In the final stages of cytokinesis, active Rap1 is only present at the cell poles. Mutant cells with decreased Rap1 activation at the poles showed strongly decreased growth rates. Hyperactivation of Rap1 results in severe growth delays and defective spindle formation in adherent cells and cell death in suspension. Furthermore, Rap mutants show aberrant regulation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, resulting in extended furrow ingression times and asymmetrical cell division. We propose that Rap1 drives cytokinesis progression by coordinating the three major cytoskeletal components: microtubules, actin, and myosin II. Importantly, mutated forms of Rap also affect cytokinesis in other organisms, suggesting a conserved role for Rap in cell division

    Accumulation of properly folded human type III procollagen molecules in specific intracellular membranous compartments in the yeast Pichia pastoris

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    It was recently reported that co-expression of the proal(III) chain of human type III procollagen with the subunits of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase in Pichia pastoris produces fully hydroxylated and properly folded recombinant type III procollagen molecules (Vuorela, A., Myllyharju, J., Nissi, R., Pihlajaniemi, T., Kivirikko, K.I., 1997. Assembly of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase and type III collagen in the yeast Pichia pastoris: formation of a stable enzyme tetramer requires coexpression with collagen and assembly of a stable collagen requires coexpression with prolyl 4-hydroxylase. EMBO J, 16, 6702-6712). These properly folded molecules accumulated inside the yeast cell, however, only similar to 10% were found in the culture medium. We report here that replacement of the authentic signal sequence of the human pro alpha 1(III) with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha mating factor prepro sequence led only to a minor increase in the amount secreted. Immunoelectron microscopy studies indicated that the procollagen molecules accumulate in specific membranous vesicular compartments that are closely associated with the nuclear membrane. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal enzyme, was found to be located in the same compartments. Non-helical pro alpha 1(III) chains produced by expression without recombinant prolyl 4-hydroxylase likewise accumulated within these compartments, The data indicate that properly folded recombinant procollagen molecules accumulate within the ER and do not proceed further in the secretory pathway. This may be related to the large size of the procollagen molecule. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V./International Society of Matrix Biology. All rights reserved

    Accumulation of properly folded human type III procollagen molecules in specific intracellular membranous compartments in the yeast Pichia pastoris

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    It was recently reported that co-expression of the proal(III) chain of human type III procollagen with the subunits of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase in Pichia pastoris produces fully hydroxylated and properly folded recombinant type III procollagen molecules (Vuorela, A., Myllyharju, J., Nissi, R., Pihlajaniemi, T., Kivirikko, K.I., 1997. Assembly of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase and type III collagen in the yeast Pichia pastoris: formation of a stable enzyme tetramer requires coexpression with collagen and assembly of a stable collagen requires coexpression with prolyl 4-hydroxylase. EMBO J, 16, 6702-6712). These properly folded molecules accumulated inside the yeast cell, however, only similar to 10% were found in the culture medium. We report here that replacement of the authentic signal sequence of the human pro alpha 1(III) with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha mating factor prepro sequence led only to a minor increase in the amount secreted. Immunoelectron microscopy studies indicated that the procollagen molecules accumulate in specific membranous vesicular compartments that are closely associated with the nuclear membrane. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal enzyme, was found to be located in the same compartments. Non-helical pro alpha 1(III) chains produced by expression without recombinant prolyl 4-hydroxylase likewise accumulated within these compartments, The data indicate that properly folded recombinant procollagen molecules accumulate within the ER and do not proceed further in the secretory pathway. This may be related to the large size of the procollagen molecule. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V./International Society of Matrix Biology. All rights reserved.</p
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