47 research outputs found

    The Effect Of Loanword Status In Japanese On The Length Of The Vowel Inserted Between Consonant Clusters In L2 English By L1 Japanese Speakers Of English

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    In L2 phonological acquisition, the difference in phonotactics between two languages might result in misperception and non-target like pronunciation (Dupoux et al., 1999; Nogita & Fan, 2012). If a language does not allow consonant clusters (CC), the language speaker may perceive an illusory vowel between the two consonants in the cluster (e.g., Japanese, Dupoux et al., 1999) and also they may insert a vowel between two consonants (i.e., vowel epenthesis). Similarly, the pronunciation of loanwords when adopted is usually modified according to the phonological system of the recipient language (Kay, 1995). The current study investigates the effect of loanwords in Japanese on the length of the vowel inserted between CC which are illegal in Japanese phonotactics by comparing the pronunciation of loanwords and non-loanwords (henceforth, loanwords refer to English words which exist in Japanese as loanwords, whereas non-loanwords are the ones which do not). For example, trumpet is a loanword because it is widely used in Japanese as a loanword but pronounced as torampetto [to.ɾa.m.pe.t.to] whereas trash is a non-loanword because it is not used in Japanese as a loanword, rather gomi, the Japanese counterpart of trash, is used. The status of loanwords and non-loanwords seems to be different in learners’ mental lexicon (Nomura & Ishikawa, 2018). The potentially resulting differences in the length of inserted vowels will, therefore, be discussed in terms of the differences in the mental representations of loanwords and non-loanwords in a Japanese learner’s mental lexicon. In order to determine L1 influence on these potential differences, the participants will be L1 Japanese/L2 English learners (JEL) and L1 Mandarin Chinese/L2 English learners (MEL). Two tasks are employed: a picture-naming task and a reading-aloud task. The results revealed that the status of loanwords in the mental lexicon of L1 Japanese speakers is different from that of non-loanwords, which caused a longer duration of vowel insertion. These results would suggest a pedagogical implication that loanwords should be treated in pronunciation teaching differently

    Evaluation of novel CEX resin for continous processing of MAb purification

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    We have evaluated novel cation exchange resin and membrane which is potentially suited for continuous process in biologics manufacturing. Typically cation exchange chromatography (CEX) is used in a bind/elute (B/E) mode for the MAb process since MAb act as cation at the buffer condition used for CEX due to the pI from neutral to weak basic. Generally, purpose of CEX chromatography is to remove aggregates and other impurities like HCP and DNA. Especially, aggregate removal is of interest to the industries. A continuous process in MAb downstream process can solve several bottlenecks in typical batch process. However its capability cannot be fully utilized if some step of chromatography is used in a B/E mode since it will take a longer process time due to the posing of product stream for binding and washing and it will take a more cost due to the requirement of large amount of resins as we use at the batch process. In such a case, chromatography in flowthrough mode has a potential to overcome those issues for both cost and time and enables us to develop more streamlined continuous process. We will present the result of our study to evaluate novel CEX resin developed by Merck Millipore by comparing with the existing process of Mab A and we obtained a conclusion that this resin is fitted to the continuous processing very much. The novel resin showed a better impurity clearance than our existing process. For example, over 65% removal of aggregate by the novel resin was obtained in contrast to no removal by the existing process. A 20-fold better clearance for DNA was confirmed for the novel resin than the existing process. This indicates an additional polishing step can be omitted and this new chromatography can be a strong option if we need to reduce such impurities further. Also the resin cost is expected to be reduced down to 1/10 in maximum since those impurity clearance results were obtained about 10-times larger load than the typical B/E mode operation of CEX. Considering those aspects, we conclude that this resin showed a better fit for a continuous process. We will also discuss an expected effect of the novel CEX resin on cost and process time savings by a continuous proces

    Bone cancer induces a unique central sensitization through synaptic changes in a wide area of the spinal cord

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Chronic bone cancer pain is thought to be partly due to central sensitization. Although murine models of bone cancer pain revealed significant neurochemical changes in the spinal cord, it is not known whether this produces functional alterations in spinal sensory synaptic transmission. In this study, we examined excitatory synaptic responses evoked in substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) neurons in spinal cord slices of adult mice bearing bone cancer, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording techniques.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Mice at 14 to 21 days after sarcoma implantation into the femur exhibited hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of the ipsilateral hind paw, as well as showing spontaneous and movement evoked pain-related behaviors. SG neurons exhibited spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The amplitudes of spontaneous EPSCs were significantly larger in cancer-bearing than control mice without any changes in passive membrane properties of SG neurons. In the presence of TTX, the amplitude of miniature EPSCs in SG neurons was increased in cancer-bearing mice and this was observed for cells sampled across a wide range of lumbar segmental levels. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor- and <it>N</it>-methyl-<it>D</it>-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by focal stimulation were also enhanced in cancer-bearing mice. Dorsal root stimulation elicited mono- and/or polysynaptic EPSCs that were caused by the activation of Aδ and/or C afferent fibers in SG neurons from both groups of animals. The number of cells receiving monosynaptic inputs from Aδ and C fibers was not different between the two groups. However, the amplitude of the monosynaptic C fiber-evoked EPSCs and the number of SG neurons receiving polysynaptic inputs from Aδ and C fibers were increased in cancer-bearing mice.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These results show that spinal synaptic transmission mediated through Aδ and C fibers is enhanced in the SG across a wide area of lumbar levels following sarcoma implantation in the femur. This widespread spinal sensitization may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the development of chronic bone cancer pain.</p

    Validation of radiographic response evaluation criteria of preoperative chemotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcomas: Japanese Orthopaedic Association Committee on Musculoskeletal Tumors Cooperative Study

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    AbstractBackgroundThe radiographic evaluation of the response to preoperative chemotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcomas is based mostly on the change in primary tumor size before and after chemotherapy, as is done for many solid cancers. Its prognostic correlation, however, has hardly been validated.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective validation study of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) radiographic response evaluation criteria of preoperative chemotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcomas as a JOA Committee on Musculoskeletal Tumors cooperative study. A total of 125 consecutive patients with high-grade bone (n = 77) and soft tissue (n = 48) sarcomas treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery in 25 tertiary referral hospitals were selected for the study. We investigated the correlation between the tumor size-based radiographic response evaluation criteria of preoperative chemotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcomas provided by the JOA Committee on Musculoskeletal Tumors (hereafter called the JOA criteria) and the patients’ overall survival using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test.ResultsThe JOA criteria correlated relatively well with survival for malignant bone tumors (mostly comprising osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma) but not for soft tissue sarcomas, suggesting that the tumor size-based radiographic evaluation criteria for the response to preoperative chemotherapy in patients with soft tissue sarcomas is invalid.ConclusionsThe JOA criteria, based on the change in primary tumor size, is valid for malignant bone tumors but invalid for soft tissue sarcomas. Other new evaluation modalities of the response to preoperative chemotherapy using innovative functional imaging techniques are needed for soft tissue sarcomas

    高速点火核融合研究の進展: 高速点火実証ターゲット,ペタワットレーザー LFEX

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    金沢大学先端科学・社会共創推進機構高速点火実証実験で不可欠なターゲットの開発,追加熱に用いるペタワットレーザーLFEX (Laser for First Ignition Experiment)の現状について示した.ターゲットでは新設計,非球対称なコーンつきターゲット内部に中空固体燃料層を形成する技術,低密度フt 一ム材料の現状を示した.LFEX レーザーでは本体が完成し,パルスを短くする回折格子を用いた圧縮器の建設が進められている

    Fabrication of high-concentration Cu-doped deuterated targets for fast ignition experiments

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    In high-energy-density physics, including inertial fusion energy using high-power lasers, doping tracer atoms and deuteration of target materials play an important role in diagnosis. For example, a low-concentration Cu dopant acts as an x-ray source for electron temperature detection while a deuterium dopant acts as a neutron source for fusion reaction detection. However, the simultaneous achievement of Cu doping, a deuterated polymer, mechanical toughness and chemical robustness during the fabrication process is not so simple. In this study, we report the successful fabrication of a Cu-doped deuterated target. The obtained samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of Cu K-shell x-ray emission and beam fusion neutrons were demonstrated using a petawatt laser at Osaka University.Ikeda T., Kaneyasu Y., Hosokawa H., et al. Fabrication of high-concentration Cu-doped deuterated targets for fast ignition experiments. Nuclear Fusion 63, 016010 (2023); https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aca2ba

    Fabrication of high-concentration Cu-doped deuterated targets for fast ignition experiments

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    先端科学・社会共創推進機構In high-energy-density physics, including inertial fusion energy using high-power lasers, doping tracer atoms and deuteration of target materials play an important role in diagnosis. For example, a low-concentration Cu dopant acts as an x-ray source for electron temperature detection while a deuterium dopant acts as a neutron source for fusion reaction detection. However, the simultaneous achievement of Cu doping, a deuterated polymer, mechanical toughness and chemical robustness during the fabrication process is not so simple. In this study, we report the successful fabrication of a Cu-doped deuterated target. The obtained samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of Cu K-shell x-ray emission and beam fusion neutrons were demonstrated using a petawatt laser at Osaka University

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