125 research outputs found

    Do the environmental conditions affect the dust-induced fragmentation in low-metallicity clouds ?: Effect of pre-ionization and far-ultraviolet/cosmic-ray fields

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    We study effects of the fully ionized initial state, or pre-ionization, on the subsequent thermal evolution of low-metallicity clouds under various intensities of the external far-ultraviolet(FUV) and cosmic-ray(CR) fields. The pre-ionization significantly affects the thermal and dynamical evolution of metal-free clouds without FUV/CRs by way of efficient HD formation. On the other hand, the pre-ionization effect on the thermal evolution is limited in very low-density regime for more metal-enriched clouds ([Z/H] >~ -4) or those under modest FUV (>10^{-3}) or CR field (>0.1 of the present-day Galactic disk levels). In any case, for >10^8 cm^{-3}, neither the initial ionization state nor the irradiating FUV strength affect the thermal evolution. The dust cooling is an important mechanism for making sub-solar mass fragments in low-metallicity gas. Since this fragmentation occurs at the temperature minimum by the dust cooling at >10^{10} cm^{-3}, this process is not vulnerable either to initial ionization state or external radiation.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, PASJ accepte

    The critical radiation intensity for direct collapse black hole formation: dependence on the radiation spectral shape

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    It has been proposed that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are originated from direct-collapse black holes (DCBHs) that are formed at z gtrsim 10 in the primordial gas in the case that H2 cooling is suppressed by strong external radiation. In this work, we study the critical specific intensity J^crit required for DCBH formation for various radiation spectral shapes by a series of one-zone calculations of a collapsing primordial- gas cloud. We calculate the critical specific intensity at the Lyman-Werner (LW) bands J^crit_LW,21 (in units of 10^-21 erg s^-1 Hz^-1 sr^-1 cm^-2) for realistic spectra of metal-poor galaxies. We find J^crit is not sensitive to the age or metallicity for the constant star formation galaxies with J^crit_LW,21 = 1300-1400, while J^crit decreases as galaxies become older or more metal-enriched for the instantaneous starburst galaxies. However, such dependence for the instantaneous starburst galaxies is weak for the young or extremely metal-poor galaxies: J^crit_LW,21 = 1000-1400 for the young galaxies and J^crit_LW,21 approx 1400 for the extremely metal-poor galaxies. The typical value of J^crit for the realistic spectra is higher than those expected in the literature, which affects the estimated DCBH number density n_DCBH. By extrapolating the result of Dijkstra, Ferrara and Mesinger, we obtain n_DCBH sim 10^-10 cMpc^-3 at z = 10, although there is still large uncertainty in this estimation.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, submitted to MNRA

    Condition for low-mass star formation in shock-compressed metal-poor clouds

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    Shocks may have been prevalent in the early Universe, associated with virialization and supernova explosions, etc. Here, we study thermal evolution and fragmentation of shock-compressed clouds, by using a one-zone model with detailed thermal and chemical processes. We explore a large range of initial density (1-1e5 /cm^3), metallicity (0-1e-2 Z_sun), UV strength (0-500 times Galactic value), and cosmic microwave background temperature (10 and 30 K). Shock-compressed clouds contract isobarically via atomic and molecular line cooling, until self-gravitating clumps are formed by fragmentation. If the metals are only in the gas-phase, the clump mass is higher than ~ 3 M_sun in any conditions we studied. Although in some cases with a metallicity higher than ~ 1e-3 Z_sun, re-fragmentation of a clump is caused by metal-line cooling, this fragment mass is higher than ~ 30 M_sun. On the other hand, if about half the mass of metals is condensed in dust grains, as in the Galactic interstellar medium, dust cooling triggers re-fragmentation of a clump into sub-solar mass pieces, for metallicities higher than ~ 1e-5 Z_sun. Therefore, the presence of dust is essential in low-mass (< M_sun) star formation from a shock-compressed cloud.Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA
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