630 research outputs found

    ASCE-41 and FEMA-351 Evaluation of E-Defense Collapse Test

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    A welded steel moment-frame building is used to assess performancebased engineering guidelines. The full-scale four-story building was shaken to collapse on the E-Defense shake table in Japan. The collapse mode was a side-sway mechanism in the first story, which occurred in spite of a strongcolumn and weak-beam design. Computer analyses were conducted to simulate the building response during the experiment. The building was then evaluated using the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings and Seismic Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing Welded Steel ) for the collapse prevention performance level via linear and nonlinear procedures. The guidelines had mixed results regarding the characterization of collapse, and no single approach was superior. They mostly erred on the safe side by predicting collapse at shaking intensities less than that in the experiment. Recommendations are made for guideline improvements

    Discovery of Negative Superhumps during a Superoutburst of January 2011 in ER Ursae Majoris

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    We report on a discovery of "negative" superhumps during the 2011 January superoutburst of ER UMa. During the superoutburst which started on 2011 January 16, we detected negative superhumps having a period of 0.062242(9) d, shorter than the orbital period by 2.2%. No evidence of positive superhumps was detected during this observation. This finding indicates that the disk exhibited retrograde precession during this superoutburst, contrary to all other known cases of superoutbursts. The duration of this superoutburst was shorter than those of ordinary superoutbursts and the intervals of normal outbursts were longer than ordinary ones. We suggest a possibility that such unusual outburst properties are likely a result of the disk tilt, which is supposed to be a cause of negative superhumps: the tilted disk could prevent the disk from being filled with materials in the outmost region which is supposed to be responsible for long-duration superoutbursts in ER UMa-type dwarf novae. The discovery signifies the importance of the classical prograde precession in sustaining long-duration superoutbursts. Furthermore, the presence of pronounced negative superhumps in this system with a high mass-transfer rate favors the hypothesis that hydrodynamical lift is the cause of the disk tilt.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, Accepted for publication in PASJ Lette

    Calcineurin knockout mice show a selective loss of small spines

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    Calcineurin is required for long-term depression and activity-dependent spine shrinkage, and calcineurin mutations have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, mice with conditional knockout of calcineurin B (CNB-KO) exhibit behavioral abnormalities suggestive of schizophrenia. Changes in the dendritic spines of these mice, however, have not been investigated. We therefore examined the dendritic spines of CNB-KO mice, and observed a significant reduction in small spines and an increase in large spines in the prefrontal and visual cortices. The effect of CNB-KO on the spine sizes was relatively moderate, possibly due to the presence of spontaneous fluctuations (dynamics) in the dendritic spines themselves. Thus, CNB-KO mice showed a spine phenotype similar to those recently reported in patients with schizophrenia

    Prevention of esophageal strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection

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    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have recently been accepted as less invasive methods for treating patients with early esophageal cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia of Barrett\u27s esophagus. However, the large defects in the esophageal mucosa often cause severe esophageal strictures, which dramatically reduce the patient\u27s quality of life. Although preventive endoscopic balloon dilatation can reduce dysphagia and the frequency of dilatation, other approaches are necessary to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. This review describes several strategies for preventing esophageal strictures after ESD, with a particular focus on anti-inflammatory and tissue engineering approaches. The local injection of triamcinolone acetonide and other systemic steroid therapies are frequently used to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. Tissue engineering approaches for preventing esophageal strictures have recently been applied in basic research studies. Scaffolds with temporary stents have been applied in five cases, and this technique has been shown to be safe and is anticipated to prevent esophageal strictures. Fabricated autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets to cover the defective mucosa similarly to how commercially available skin products fabricated from epidermal cells are used for skin defects or in cases of intractable ulcers. Fabricated autologous oralmucosal- epithelial cell sheets have already been shown to be safe