267 research outputs found

    Pre-stimulus influences on auditory perception arising from sensory representations and decision processes

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    The qualities of perception depend not only on the sensory inputs but also on the brain state before stimulus presentation. Although the collective evidence from neuroimaging studies for a relation between prestimulus state and perception is strong, the interpretation in the context of sensory computations or decision processes has remained difficult. In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. Using single-trial decoding, we quantified the relation between prestimulus activity, relevant sensory evidence, and choice in different task-relevant EEG components. Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. Within later-activated frontoparietal regions, theta and alpha phase had a direct influence on choice, without involving sensory evidence. These results delineate two consistent mechanisms by which prestimulus activity shapes perception. However, the timescales of the relevant neural activity depend on the specific brain regions engaged by the respective task

    Neurophysiological correlates of the rubber hand illusion in late evoked and alpha/beta band activity

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    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) allows insights into how the brain resolves conflicting multisensory information regarding body position and ownership. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership, with conflicting results likely originating from differences in experimental parameters and control conditions. Here, we overcome these limitations by using a fully automated and precisely-timed visuo-tactile stimulation setup to record evoked responses and oscillatory responses in participants who felt the RHI. Importantly, we relied on a combination of experimental conditions to rule out confounds of attention, body-stimulus position and stimulus duration and on the combination of two control conditions to identify neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership. In two separate experiments we observed a consistent illusion-related attenuation of ERPs around 330 ms over frontocentral electrodes, as well as decreases of frontal alpha and beta power during the illusion that could not be attributed to changes in attention, body-stimulus position or stimulus duration. Our results reveal neural correlates of illusory hand ownership in late and likely higher-order rather than early sensory processes, and support a role of premotor and possibly intraparietal areas in mediating illusory body ownership

    Perceptually relevant speech tracking in auditory and motor cortex reflects distinct linguistic features

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    During online speech processing, our brain tracks the acoustic fluctuations in speech at different timescales. Previous research has focused on generic timescales (for example, delta or theta bands) that are assumed to map onto linguistic features such as prosody or syllables. However, given the high intersubject variability in speaking patterns, such a generic association between the timescales of brain activity and speech properties can be ambiguous. Here, we analyse speech tracking in source-localised magnetoencephalographic data by directly focusing on timescales extracted from statistical regularities in our speech material. This revealed widespread significant tracking at the timescales of phrases (0.6–1.3 Hz), words (1.8–3 Hz), syllables (2.8–4.8 Hz), and phonemes (8–12.4 Hz). Importantly, when examining its perceptual relevance, we found stronger tracking for correctly comprehended trials in the left premotor (PM) cortex at the phrasal scale as well as in left middle temporal cortex at the word scale. Control analyses using generic bands confirmed that these effects were specific to the speech regularities in our stimuli. Furthermore, we found that the phase at the phrasal timescale coupled to power at beta frequency (13–30 Hz) in motor areas. This cross-frequency coupling presumably reflects top-down temporal prediction in ongoing speech perception. Together, our results reveal specific functional and perceptually relevant roles of distinct tracking and cross-frequency processes along the auditory–motor pathway

    Irregular speech rate dissociates auditory cortical entrainment, evoked responses, and frontal alpha

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    The entrainment of slow rhythmic auditory cortical activity to the temporal regularities in speech is considered to be a central mechanism underlying auditory perception. Previous work has shown that entrainment is reduced when the quality of the acoustic input is degraded, but has also linked rhythmic activity at similar time scales to the encoding of temporal expectations. To understand these bottom-up and top-down contributions to rhythmic entrainment, we manipulated the temporal predictive structure of speech by parametrically altering the distribution of pauses between syllables or words, thereby rendering the local speech rate irregular while preserving intelligibility and the envelope fluctuations of the acoustic signal. Recording EEG activity in human participants, we found that this manipulation did not alter neural processes reflecting the encoding of individual sound transients, such as evoked potentials. However, the manipulation significantly reduced the fidelity of auditory delta (but not theta) band entrainment to the speech envelope. It also reduced left frontal alpha power and this alpha reduction was predictive of the reduced delta entrainment across participants. Our results show that rhythmic auditory entrainment in delta and theta bands reflect functionally distinct processes. Furthermore, they reveal that delta entrainment is under top-down control and likely reflects prefrontal processes that are sensitive to acoustical regularities rather than the bottom-up encoding of acoustic features

    Some Observations on Thomas Mann\u27s Use of Names in Buddenbrooks

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    Buku ini berisi tentang sejarah, dan berbagai jenis media teknologi dan dimanfaatkan dalam rangka penyediaan jasa informasixi, 9.30 hlm.: ilus.; 21 c

    Neural population coding: combining insights from microscopic and mass signals

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    Behavior relies on the distributed and coordinated activity of neural populations. Population activity can be measured using multi-neuron recordings and neuroimaging. Neural recordings reveal how the heterogeneity, sparseness, timing, and correlation of population activity shape information processing in local networks, whereas neuroimaging shows how long-range coupling and brain states impact on local activity and perception. To obtain an integrated perspective on neural information processing we need to combine knowledge from both levels of investigation. We review recent progress of how neural recordings, neuroimaging, and computational approaches begin to elucidate how interactions between local neural population activity and large-scale dynamics shape the structure and coding capacity of local information representations, make them state-dependent, and control distributed populations that collectively shape behavior

    Neurons with stereotyped and rapid responses provide a reference frame for relative temporal coding in primate auditory cortex

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    The precise timing of spikes of cortical neurons relative to stimulus onset carries substantial sensory information. To access this information the sensory systems would need to maintain an internal temporal reference that reflects the precise stimulus timing. Whether and how sensory systems implement such reference frames to decode time-dependent responses, however, remains debated. Studying the encoding of naturalistic sounds in primate (Macaca mulatta) auditory cortex we here investigate potential intrinsic references for decoding temporally precise information. Within the population of recorded neurons, we found one subset responding with stereotyped fast latencies that varied little across trials or stimuli, while the remaining neurons had stimulus-modulated responses with longer and variable latencies. Computational analysis demonstrated that the neurons with stereotyped short latencies constitute an effective temporal reference for relative coding. Using the response onset of a simultaneously recorded stereotyped neuron allowed decoding most of the stimulus information carried by onset latencies and the full spike train of stimulus-modulated neurons. Computational modeling showed that few tens of such stereotyped reference neurons suffice to recover nearly all information that would be available when decoding the same responses relative to the actual stimulus onset. These findings reveal an explicit neural signature of an intrinsic reference for decoding temporal response patterns in the auditory cortex of alert animals. Furthermore, they highlight a role for apparently unselective neurons as an early saliency signal that provides a temporal reference for extracting stimulus information from other neurons

    Trial by trial dependencies in multisensory perception and their correlates in dynamic brain activity

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    Kayser S, Kayser C. Trial by trial dependencies in multisensory perception and their correlates in dynamic brain activity. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1): 3742.A well-known effect in multisensory perception is that congruent information received by different senses usually leads to faster and more accurate responses. Less well understood are trial-by-trial interactions, whereby the multisensory composition of stimuli experienced during previous trials shapes performance during a subsequent trial. We here exploit the analogy of multisensory paradigms with classical flanker tasks to investigate the neural correlates underlying trial-by-trial interactions of multisensory congruency. Studying an audio-visual motion task, we demonstrate that congruency benefits for accuracy and reaction times are reduced following an audio-visual incongruent compared to a congruent preceding trial. Using single trial analysis of motion-sensitive EEG components we then localize current-trial and serial interaction effects within distinct brain regions: while the multisensory congruency experienced during the current trial influences the encoding of task-relevant information in sensory-specific brain regions, the serial interaction arises from task-relevant processes within the inferior frontal lobe. These results highlight parallels between multisensory paradigms and classical flanker tasks and demonstrate a role of amodal association cortices in shaping perception based on the history of multisensory congruency
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