517 research outputs found

    The toxicology of heroin‚Äźrelated death: estimating survival times

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/134443/1/add13547.pdfhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/134443/2/add13547_am.pd

    Combination Olanzapine and Samidorphan for the Management of Schizophrenia and Bipolar 1 Disorder in Adults: A Narrative Review

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    Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychotic disorder characterized by positive symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thoughts, and negative symptoms like lack of effect or motivation. Bipolar 1 disorder (B1D) is a psychiatric illness characterized by recurrent manic episodes in alternation with depressive episodes and interspersed periods of euthymia, ultimately resulting in psychological distress and impairment of daily functioning. Effective treatments are needed for both schizophrenia and B1D to reach the treatment goals of reducing the debilitating symptomology, improving social functioning and quality of life, and increasing the chances of recovery and more favorable long-term outcomes. To date, olanzapine is one of the most efficacious atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) for the treatment of both schizophrenia and B1D and is associated with fewer extrapyramidal effects compared to other treatments. However, compared to other AAPs, olanzapine is associated with a greater chance of metabolic syndrome, limiting its clinical use and affecting treatment compliance. Samidorphan mitigates the weight gain side effects of olanzapine by antagonizing őľ-, őļ-, and őī-opioid receptors. The use of combination drugs to treat psychiatric conditions is an emerging field with the goal of increasing therapeutic efficacy and decreasing undesirable side effects. Clinical trials have demonstrated combination on olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) treatment resulted in significantly less weight gain than olanzapine monotherapy. Clinical trial patients reported improvements in symptoms of psychosis, reduced weight gain, and overall satisfaction with their treatment. OLZ/SAM has been as shown to be a safe and effective pharmaceutical option for the clinical management of schizophrenia and B1D

    Deutetrabenazine for the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington’s disease

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    This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of Deutetrabenazine in treating chorea associated with Huntington’s disease. Unfortunately, treatment has been limited for many aspects of this neurodegenerative disease. The present investigation presents the background, evidence, and indications for the use Deutetrabenazine in the setting of Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is characterized by a variety of motor, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms with chorea being one of the more notable ones. Chorea is a movement disorder present in multiple neurologic diseases that causes involuntary and irregular muscle movements theorized to be stemming from high dopamine levels. Deutetrabenazine is thought to function as an inhibitor of the VMAT2 vesicular monoamine transporter resulting in decreased monoamine release, including dopamine, in the synaptic cleft which has a therapeutic effect in management of chorea. This drug was approved by the FDA in 2017 with a specific indication for tardive dyskinesia and choreiform movement in Huntington’s disease. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for Huntington’s disease. Thus, management is primarily focused on symptom management with the use of a variety of pharmaceutical agents. Chorea is one of the many manifestations that significantly alter the quality of life of many patients. Deutetrabenazine is a promising new option for the treatment of chorea in the setting of Huntington’s disease. Although studies so far have displayed mixed results, further research, including head-to-head studies, is necessary to elucidate the true potential of this drug

    Aducanumab, a Novel Anti-Amyloid Monoclonal Antibody, for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Comprehensive Review

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    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting millions of individuals, including family members who often take on the role as caregiver. This debilitating disease reportedly consumes 8% of the total United States healthcare expenditure, with medical and nursing outlays accounting for an estimated $290 billion. Cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists have historically been the most widely used pharmacologic therapies for patients with AD, however, these drugs are not curative. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, presentation, and current treatment of AD followed by the role of the novel monoclonal antibody, aducanumab, in treatment of AD. Currently aducanumab is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug that acts to slow progression of this disease. Aducanumab is an anti-amyloid drug which functions by selectively binding amyloid aggregates in both the oligomeric and fibrillar states. Studies show aducanumab may help to restore neurological function in patients with AD by reducing beta-amyloid plaques and reestablishing neuronal calcium permeability. However, there is concern the magnitude of this drug’s benefit may only be statistically significant and not clinically significant. Despite this skepticism, aducanumab has proven to significantly decrease amyloid in all cortical brain regions examined. In summary, aducanumab has provided hope for those working toward the goal of providing patients a safe and viable treatment option in the management of AD

    Antipsychotic Polypharmacy-Related Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Comprehensive Review

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    Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that exists at the more extreme end of a spectrum of diseases, and significantly affects daily functioning. Cardiovascular adverse effects of antipsychotic medications are well known, and include changes in blood pressure and arrhythmias. Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death worldwide, and antipsychotic medications are associated with numerous cardiac side effects. A possible link exists between antipsychotic medications and sudden cardiac death. Common prescribing patterns that may influence cardiovascular events include the use of multiple antipsychotics and/or additional drugs commonly prescribed to patients on antipsychotics. The results of this review reflect an association between antipsychotic drugs and increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by iatrogenic prolongation of the QTc interval. QTc prolongation and sudden cardiac death exist in patients taking antipsychotic monotherapy. The risk increases for the concomitant use of specific drugs that prolong the QTc interval, such as opioids, antibiotics, and illicit drugs. However, evidence suggests that QTc intervals may not adequately predict sudden cardiac death. In considering the findings of this narrative review, we conclude that it is unclear whether there is a precise association between antipsychotic polypharmacy and sudden cardiac death with QTc interval changes. The present narrative review warrants further research on this important potential association

    Pharmacological Advances in Opioid Therapy: A Review of the Role of Oliceridine in Pain Management

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    Problems with the treatment of acute pain may arise when a patient is opioid-tolerant, such as those on chronic therapy with opioids or opiate replacement therapy, those who misuse opioids, and those who are in recovery. While some of the adverse effects of opioid medications are well known, it is also important to recognize the roles of tolerance and hyperalgesia. Oliceridine can target and modulate a novel őľ-receptor pathway. The G protein-biased agonism of oliceridine allows for effective re-sensitization and desensitization of the mu-opioid receptor, which decreases the formation of opioid tolerance in patients. Oliceridine has been demonstrated to be an effective and relatively safe intravenous analgesic for the treatment of postoperative pain and is generally well tolerated with a favorable side effect profile when compared to morphine. As the prevalence of pain increases, it is becoming increasingly important to find safe and effective analgesics

    pitolisant, a novel histamine-3 receptor competitive antagonist, and inverse agonist, in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in adult patients with narcolepsy

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    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder that presents with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy, which is a sudden paralysis of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions such as laughing. It is also associated with many other disorders, including psychiatric disorders, neurologic illnesses, and medication side effects. Common causes of delayed and incorrect diagnoses of these conditions include lack of physician familiarity with narcolepsy symptoms and comorbidities which mask narcolepsy signs and symptoms. Current pharmacologic therapies include Modafinil and Armodafinil for EDS and sodium oxybate for cataplexy. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, presentation, treatment of narcolepsy, and the role of a novel drug, Pitolisant, in the treatment of EDS in adults with narcolepsy. Pitolisant is a histamine-3 receptor (H3R), competitive antagonist, and inverse agonist, acting through the histamine system to regulate wakefulness. It is a novel drug approved in August 2019 by the FDA, is not classified as a controlled substance, and is approved for use in Europe and the United States to treat EDS and cataplexy in narcolepsy. Recent phase II and III trials have shown that Pitolisant helps reduce the ESS score and cataplexy. In summary, based on comparative studies, recent evidence has shown that Pitolisant is non-inferior to Modafinil in the treatment of EDS but superior to Modafinil in reducing cataplexy

    Chronic pain treatment strategies in Parkinson’s disease

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    Neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), have increased in prevalence and are expected to further increase in the coming decades. In this regard, PD affects around 3% of the population by age 65 and up to 5% of people over the age of 85. PD is a widely described, physically and mentally disabling neurodegenerative disorder. One symptom often poorly recognized and under-treated by health care providers despite being reported as the most common non-motor symptom is the finding of chronic pain. Compared to the general population of similar age, PD patients suffer from a significantly higher level and prevalence of pain. The most common form of pain reported by Parkinson’s patients is of musculoskeletal origin. One of the most used combination drugs for PD is Levodopa-Carbidopa, a dopamine precursor that is converted to dopamine by the action of a naturally occurring enzyme called DOPA decarboxylase. Pramipexole, a D2 dopamine agonist, and apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, and Rotigotine, a dopamine receptor agonist, have showed efficacy on PD-associated pain. Other treatments that have shown efficacy in treating pain of diverse etiologies are acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. Opioids and opioid-like medications such as oxycodone, morphine, tramadol, and codeine are also commonly employed in treatment of chronic pain in PD. Other opioid related medications such as Tapentadol, a central-acting oral analgesic with combined opioid and noradrenergic properties, and Targinact, a combination of the opioid agonist oxycodone and the opioid antagonist naloxone have shown improvement in pain. Anticonvulsants such as gabapentin, pregabalin, lamotrigine, carbamazepine and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can be trialed when attempting to manage chronic pain in PD. The selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) also possess pain relieving and antidepressant properties, but carry less of the risk of anticholinergic side effects seen in TCAs. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown in multiple studies to be effective against various types of PD associated pain symptoms. Massage therapy (MT) is one of the most common forms of complementary and alternative medicine. Studies have shown that pressure applied during MT may stimulate vagal activity, promoting reduced anxiety and pain, as well as increasing levels of serotonin. In a survey study of PD patients, rehabilitative therapy and physical therapy were rated as the most effective for pain reduction, though with only temporary relief but these studies were uncontrolled. Yoga has been studied for patients with a wide array of neurological disorders. In summary, PD pathology is thought to have a modulating effect on pain sensation, which could amplify pain. This could help explain a portion of the higher incidence of chronic pain felt by PD patients. A treatment plan can be devised that may include dopaminergic agents, acetaminophen, NSAIDs, opioids, antidepressants, physical therapies, DBS and other options discussed in this review. A thorough assessment of patient history and physical examination should be made in patients with PD so chronic pain may be managed effectively

    Chronic pain treatment strategies in Parkinson’s disease

    Get PDF
    Neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), have increased in prevalence and are expected to further increase in the coming decades. In this regard, PD affects around 3% of the population by age 65 and up to 5% of people over the age of 85. PD is a widely described, physically and mentally disabling neurodegenerative disorder. One symptom often poorly recognized and under-treated by health care providers despite being reported as the most common non-motor symptom is the finding of chronic pain. Compared to the general population of similar age, PD patients suffer from a significantly higher level and prevalence of pain. The most common form of pain reported by Parkinson’s patients is of musculoskeletal origin. One of the most used combination drugs for PD is Levodopa-Carbidopa, a dopamine precursor that is converted to dopamine by the action of a naturally occurring enzyme called DOPA decarboxylase. Pramipexole, a D2 dopamine agonist, and apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, and Rotigotine, a dopamine receptor agonist, have showed efficacy on PD-associated pain. Other treatments that have shown efficacy in treating pain of diverse etiologies are acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. Opioids and opioid-like medications such as oxycodone, morphine, tramadol, and codeine are also commonly employed in treatment of chronic pain in PD. Other opioid related medications such as Tapentadol, a central-acting oral analgesic with combined opioid and noradrenergic properties, and Targinact, a combination of the opioid agonist oxycodone and the opioid antagonist naloxone have shown improvement in pain. Anticonvulsants such as gabapentin, pregabalin, lamotrigine, carbamazepine and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can be trialed when attempting to manage chronic pain in PD. The selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) also possess pain relieving and antidepressant properties, but carry less of the risk of anticholinergic side effects seen in TCAs. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown in multiple studies to be effective against various types of PD associated pain symptoms. Massage therapy (MT) is one of the most common forms of complementary and alternative medicine. Studies have shown that pressure applied during MT may stimulate vagal activity, promoting reduced anxiety and pain, as well as increasing levels of serotonin. In a survey study of PD patients, rehabilitative therapy and physical therapy were rated as the most effective for pain reduction, though with only temporary relief but these studies were uncontrolled. Yoga has been studied for patients with a wide array of neurological disorders. In summary, PD pathology is thought to have a modulating effect on pain sensation, which could amplify pain. This could help explain a portion of the higher incidence of chronic pain felt by PD patients. A treatment plan can be devised that may include dopaminergic agents, acetaminophen, NSAIDs, opioids, antidepressants, physical therapies, DBS and other options discussed in this review. A thorough assessment of patient history and physical examination should be made in patients with PD so chronic pain may be managed effectively
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