32,413 research outputs found

    EU biofuels sustainability standards and certification systems - how to seek WTO-compatibility

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    Biofuels are increasingly being produced and consumed as a partial substitute to fossil-fuel based transport fuels in the fight against climate change. Sustainability criteria have been introduced recently by some countries to help ensure biofuels perform better than fossil fuels environmentally. Concerns have been expressed from various quarters that such criteria could represent World Trade Organisation (WTO)-incompatible barriers to trade. The present paper addresses two specific issues. First, it argues that biofuels can be expected to be treated like any other traded product under WTO law. Thus an importing country could not impose different trade measures dependent on whether the biofuel complied with its sustainability criteria. Second, the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBTA) provides guidance on how to draw up criteria to help ensure WTO compatibility. This cannot guarantee compatibility, but it can help reduce significantly the chances of WTO Members bringing actions against a fellow Member’s biofuels sustainability criteria. There is little direct case law to draw upon but it is argued that, if the TBT guidance is followed, in the long term the absence of case law can be taken as an indication that the sustainability criteria established are WTO-compatible

    Colour image segmentation by the vector-valued Allen-Cahn phase-field model: a multigrid solution

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    We propose a new method for the numerical solution of a PDE-driven model for colour image segmentation and give numerical examples of the results. The method combines the vector-valued Allen-Cahn phase field equation with initial data fitting terms. This method is known to be closely related to the Mumford-Shah problem and the level set segmentation by Chan and Vese. Our numerical solution is performed using a multigrid splitting of a finite element space, thereby producing an efficient and robust method for the segmentation of large images.Comment: 17 pages, 9 figure

    State Transfer and Spin Measurement

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    We present a Hamiltonian that can be used for amplifying the signal from a quantum state, enabling the measurement of a macroscopic observable to determine the state of a single spin. We prove a general mapping between this Hamiltonian and an exchange Hamiltonian for arbitrary coupling strengths and local magnetic fields. This facilitates the use of existing schemes for perfect state transfer to give perfect amplification. We further prove a link between the evolution of this fixed Hamiltonian and classical Cellular Automata, thereby unifying previous approaches to this amplification task. Finally, we show how to use the new Hamiltonian for perfect state transfer in the, to date, unique scenario where total spin is not conserved during the evolution, and demonstrate that this yields a significantly different response in the presence of decoherence.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Second report on containers

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    In our first report on containers published in January,1967, we tried to summarise progress in this new mode of transportation and to define some of the problems which existed

    First report on containers

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    Everybody agrees that containers are a "good thing";the actual advantages of transporting cargo, and in particular, dry cargo, in containers over other forms of transport have, to our knowledge, nowhere been stated in quantitative terms. It is claimed that containers will reduce the turn-round time of ships, ease congestion in the docks, speed-up total transit time of cargo, reduce the risk of pilferage, reduce packaging cost and reduce total handling effort in all stages of transit. Given that all these advantages are real, it is obvious that they do not accrue in equal measure to all parties concerned in the movement of goods from consignor to consignee. There is indeed a likelihood of a conflict of interest between these parties. In this report we shall try to delineate the various problem areas, indicate the quantitative information that needs to be collected in order to decide how to solve these problems and outline an approach to such solutions