342 research outputs found

    PROGRAPE-1: A Programmable, Multi-Purpose Computer for Many-Body Simulations

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    We have developed PROGRAPE-1 (PROgrammable GRAPE-1), a programmable multi-purpose computer for many-body simulations. The main difference between PROGRAPE-1 and "traditional" GRAPE systems is that the former uses FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chips as the processing elements, while the latter rely on the hardwired pipeline processor specialized to gravitational interactions. Since the logic implemented in FPGA chips can be reconfigured, we can use PROGRAPE-1 to calculate not only gravitational interactions but also other forms of interactions such as van der Waals force, hydrodynamical interactions in SPH calculation and so on. PROGRAPE-1 comprises two Altera EPF10K100 FPGA chips, each of which contains nominally 100,000 gates. To evaluate the programmability and performance of PROGRAPE-1, we implemented a pipeline for gravitational interaction similar to that of GRAPE-3. One pipeline fitted into a single FPGA chip, which operated at 16 MHz clock. Thus, for gravitational interaction, PROGRAPE-1 provided the speed of 0.96 Gflops-equivalent. PROGRAPE will prove to be useful for wide-range of particle-based simulations in which the calculation cost of interactions other than gravity is high, such as the evaluation of SPH interactions.Comment: 20 pages with 9 figures; submitted to PAS

    GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

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    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 board adopted PCI bus as the interface to the host computer instead of VME of GRAPE-3, resulting in the communication speed one order of magnitude faster. (3) In addition to the pure 1/r potential, the G5 chip can calculate forces with arbitrary cutoff functions, so that it can be applied to Ewald or P^3M methods. (4) The pairwise force calculated on GRAPE-5 is about 10 times more accurate than that on GRAPE-3. On one GRAPE-5 board, one timestep of 128k-body simulation with direct summation algorithm takes 14 seconds. With Barnes-Hut tree algorithm (theta = 0.75), one timestep of 10^6-body simulation can be done in 16 seconds.Comment: 19 pages, 24 Postscript figures, 3 tables, Latex, submitted to Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japa

    GRAPE-6A: A single-card GRAPE-6 for parallel PC-GRAPE cluster system

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    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of GRAPE-6A, a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations. It was designed to be used with a PC cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE-6A. Such configuration is particularly effective in running parallel tree algorithm. Though the use of parallel tree algorithm was possible with the original GRAPE-6 hardware, it was not very cost-effective since a single GRAPE-6 board was still too fast and too expensive. Therefore, we designed GRAPE-6A as a single PCI card to minimize the reproduction cost and optimize the computing speed. The peak performance is 130 Gflops for one GRAPE-6A board and 3.1 Tflops for our 24 node cluster. We describe the implementation of the tree, TreePM and individual timestep algorithms on both a single GRAPE-6A system and GRAPE-6A cluster. Using the tree algorithm on our 16-node GRAPE-6A system, we can complete a collisionless simulation with 100 million particles (8000 steps) within 10 days.Comment: submitted to PAS

    Structure of Dark Matter Halos From Hierarchical Clustering. III. Shallowing of The Inner Cusp

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    We investigate the structure of the dark matter halo formed in the cold dark matter scenarios by N-body simulations with parallel treecode on GRAPE cluster systems. We simulated 8 halos with the mass of 4.4×1014M4.4\times 10^{14}M_{\odot} to 1.6×1015M1.6\times 10^{15}M_{\odot} in the SCDM and LCDM model using up to 30 million particles. With the resolution of our simulations, the density profile is reliable down to 0.2 percent of the virial radius. Our results show that the slope of inner cusp within 1 percent virial radius is shallower than -1.5, and the radius where the shallowing starts exhibits run-to-run variation, which means the innermost profile is not universal.Comment: 26 pages, 16 fugures, submitted to Ap

    High Subsidence Rate After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using a Zweymüller-type Noncemented Implant With a Matte Surface

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    INTRODUCTION: The surface topography is one key factor that affects the initial fixation of prosthesis in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We aimed to evaluate the mid-term results of a Zweymüller-type noncemented femoral implant (Elance stem) that had a matte surface with a target average roughness of 1.0 to 2.5 μm. The prosthesis was subjected to alkali and heat treatments to enhance its bone-bonding property. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 30 THAs (27 patients) done using an Elance stem from September 2012 to October 2014 were evaluated clinically and radiographically for a mean follow-up of 6.3 ± 1.7 years after the index THA. RESULTS: Stem revision was indicated for six hips (20%). The survival rate with stem revision for any reason was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 68.9%-94.8%) at 5 years. Stem subsidence >5 mm was noted in 17 hips (56.7%). The survival rate with stem subsidence >5 mm as the end point was 46.6% (95% confidence interval, 29.9%-64.2%) at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The Zweymüller-type noncemented stem with a low-roughness matte surface demonstrated a high subsidence rate, although the bone-bonding property was potentially enhanced by the alkali and heat treatments. Surgeons should be aware that an insufficient surface roughness could lead to poor mechanical fixation of the noncemented stem, even with an appropriate stem geometry and surface chemistry

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma: progress toward improvement in survival? A population-based study

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    Background Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare histological subtype of soft-tissue sarcoma, which remains refractory to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. We aimed to characterize ASPS and investigate whether the oncological outcome has improved over the past decade. Methods One hundred and twenty patients with newly diagnosed ASPS from 2006 to 2017, identified from the Bone and Soft-Tissue Tumor Registry in Japan, were analyzed retrospectively. Results The study cohort comprised 34 (28%) patients with localized ASPS and 86 (72%) with metastatic disease at presentation. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 68% for all patients and 86% and 62% for localized and metastatic disease, respectively (p = 0.019). Metastasis at presentation was the only adverse prognostic factor for DSS (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.65; p = 0.048). Patients who were > 25 years (80%; p = 0.023), had deep-seated tumors (75%; p = 0.002), and tumors > 5 cm (5-10 cm, 81%; > 10 cm, 81%; p < 0.001) were more likely to have metastases at presentation. In patients with localized ASPS, adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy did not affect survival, and 13 patients (45%) developed distant metastases in the lung (n = 12, 92%) and brain (n = 2, 15%). In patients with metastatic ASPS (lung, n = 85 [99%]; bone, n = 12 [14%]; and brain n = 9 [11%]), surgery for the primary or metastatic site did not affect survival. Prolonged survival was seen in patients who received pazopanib treatment (p = 0.045), but not in those who received doxorubicin-based cytotoxic chemotherapy. Overall, improved DSS for metastatic ASPS has been observed since 2012 (5-year DSS, from 58 to 65%) when pazopanib was approved for advanced diseases, although without a statistically significant difference (p = 0.117). Conclusion The national study confirmed a unique feature of ASPS with frequent metastasis to the lung and brain but an indolent clinical course. An overall trend toward prolonged survival after the introduction of targeted therapy encourages continuous efforts to develop novel therapeutic options for this therapeutically resistant soft-tissue sarcoma

    Difference in Therapeutic Strategies for Joint‐Preserving Surgery for Non‐Traumatic Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head between the United States and Japan: A Review of the Literature

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    For patients with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), core decompression (CD) and bone grafts (BG) are mainly performed in the West, while osteotomy is found to be predominant in Japan. It is not well recognized how the surgical procedures for joint preservation in patients with ONFH are completely different between the United States and Japan. This paper identifies the contexts and the differences in treatment strategies for ONFH between the two countries. We compared the surgical trends of the two countries over three periods, 1997-2001, 2002-2006, and 2007-2011 (the US data for the third period was 2007-2008), based on a 2014 US paper and a 2013 national publication in Japan. We compared the details of surgery for non-traumatic ONFH under the same conditions in the two reports. For the period 1997-2001, the rates of surgeries for ONFH in the US were as follows: total hip arthroplasty (THA), 86%; CD, 10%; and osteotomy, 0.4%. In Japan, THA was 61%, osteotomy 38%, and CD 0%. For the recent period, 2007-2011 (US 2007-2008), the rate of THA was 91%, CD 6%, and osteotomy 0.1%, in the US, compared to a THA rate of 73%, CD 0%, and osteotomy 26% in Japan. The results for the interim period (2002-2006) were between the old and new data. The use of joint-preserving surgery for ONFH differs greatly between the US and Japan. The first-line joint-preserving surgery was CD in the US and osteotomy in Japan. Each procedure was rarely done in the other country. From about 2000 to 2010, the percentage of THA increased in both countries. The proportion of joint-preserving surgery (CD in the US and osteotomy in Japan) declined. The decrease in joint-preserving procedures may be largely attributed to improved long-term outcomes of THA due to technological advances. There is also a reluctance for young ONFH patients to undergo joint-preserving procedures, such as osteotomy, that require long-term hospitalization
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