6,149 research outputs found

    Propagation of boundary-induced discontinuity in stationary radiative transfer

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    We consider the boundary value problem of the stationary transport equation in the slab domain of general dimensions. In this paper, we discuss the relation between discontinuity of the incoming boundary data and that of the solution to the stationary transport equation. We introduce two conditions posed on the boundary data so that discontinuity of the boundary data propagates along positive characteristic lines as that of the solution to the stationary transport equation. Our analysis does not depend on the celebrated velocity averaging lemma, which is different from previous works. We also introduce an example in two dimensional case which shows that piecewise continuity of the boundary data is not a sufficient condition for the main result.Comment: 15 pages, no figure

    Can You Believe Your Neighbors' Behaviors?

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    In the theoretical assumption of informational cascades, private signals and predecessors' actions are equivalently informative before informational cascades, but are not once informational cascades have started. This experimental study tests this assumption by measuring the informativeness of private signals and predecessors'' actions for human subjects in and out of informational cascades. We observed that subjects in informational cascades do not extract much information from predecessors'' actions, indicating that they recognize other subjects'' cascading behaviors, that subjects rely more on their private signals than on predecessors'' actions even when both of them are equivalently informative, and that subjects cannot estimate posterior beliefs precisely in a Bayesian way due to cognitive biases such as anchoring and adjustment or conservatism.

    Inflation Expectations of Japanese Households: Micro Evidence from a Consumer Confidence Survey

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    Economists unanimously agree that economic agents’ expectations are crucially important in determining macroeconomic outcomes. However, mainstream macroeconomists usually simply assume that expectations are rational, leaving unexamined the fundamental question whether individual agents’ actual expectations are rational or not. Against this background, this study examines the properties of Japanese households’ inflation expectations using micro-based inflation expectations data from the Monthly Consumer Confidence Survey Covering All of Japan. Our analyses show that actual inflation expectations by Japanese households are not rational in the sense that they are upward biased, at least ex post, and individual households appear not to instantaneously incorporate into their expectations information that is freely available from news reports on the views of professional forecasters. Our findings, moreover, suggest that while the sticky information model appears to better explain inflation expectations dynamics (than rational expectations models), we encounter a handful of facts that look inconsistent with the simple model.inflation expectations, consumer survey

    Why Lying Pays: Truth Bias in the Communication with Conflicting Interests

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    We conduct experiments of a cheap-talk game with incomplete information in which one sender type has an incentive to misrepresent her type. Although that Sender type mostly lies in the experiments, the Receiver tends to believe the Sender's messages. This confirms ``truth bias'' reported in communication theory in a one-shot, anonymous environment without nonverbal cues. These results cannot be explained by existing refinement theories, while a bounded rationality model explains them under certain conditions. We claim that the theory for the evolution of language should address why truthful communication survives in the environment in which lying succeeds.Cheap talk, Communication, Private information, Experiment, Equilibrium refinement, Bounded rationality, Truth bias

    Study of the slepton non-universality at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

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    In supersymmetric theory, the sfermion-fermion-gaugino interactions conserve the chirality of (s)fermions. The effect appears as the charge asymmetry in m(jl)m(jl) distributions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where jets and leptons arise from the cascade decay q~qχ~20qll~\tilde{q} \to q \tilde{\chi}^0_2 \to ql\tilde{l}. Furthermore, the decay branching ratios and the charge asymmetries in m(jl)m(jl) distributions are flavor non-universal due to the l~L\tilde{l}_L and l~R\tilde{l}_R mixing. When tanβ\tan\beta is large, the non-universality between ee and μ\mu becomes O(10)O(10)% level. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation for some minimal supergravity benchmark points to demonstrate the detectability.Comment: 19 pages, 6 figures, revte

    Discovery of supersymmetry with degenerated mass spectrum

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    Discovery of supersymmetric (SUSY) particles at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) has been studied for the models where squarks and gluino are much heavier than the lightest supersymetric particle (LSP). In this paper, we investigate the SUSY discovery in the models with degenerated mass spectrum up to m_LSP~0.7 m_sq. Such mass spectrum is predicted in certain parameter region of the mixed modulas anomaly mediation (MMAM) model. We find that the effective transverse mass of the signal for the degenerated parameters shows the distribution similar to that of the background. Experimental sensitivity of the SUSY particles at the LHC therefore depends on the uncertainty of the background in this class of model. We also find that SUSY signal shows an interesting correlation between M_eff and ETmiss which may be used to determine the signal region properly to enhance the S/N ratio even if the sparticle masses are rather degenerated. The structure is universal for the models with new heavy colored particles decaying into visible particles and a stable neutral particle, dark matter.Comment: 18 pages, 7 figure, revtex