24 research outputs found

    Engineering and Communication: Towards the Integration of Critical Thinking into the Professional Development of Engineering Students

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    In this paper we will address an important but neglected aspect of the professional development of engineering student’s i.e. promotion of good Communication Skills along with Critical Thinking Skills. With the conspicuous presence of English as a Lingua Franca in every vein of successful growth of a professional, Engineering students find themselves always standing on the horizons of ‘Classic Dilemma’ of How to get selected. We will try to focus on the need of communication skills not only to get jobs but also to showcase the potential in an organization to gain permanent position

    SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF CURCUMA LONGA AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS WITH COPPER IONS ON FOOD SPOILAGE BACTERIA

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    Objective: To evaluate the synergistic antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra in combination with copper metal ions. Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra's extracts were observed by standard procedures. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Paenibacillus popilliae by an agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activity of copper ions and their synergistic effect was also evaluated.Results: The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was carried out for the detection of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids and coumarins. The results of combinatorial effects of copper metal ions with aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra showed maximum antibacterial activity (30±0.33 mm and 30±0.00 mm) when 25 µl of plant extract combined with 25 µl of copper ions, whereas minimum antibacterial activity (23±0.33 mm and 22±0.33 mm) was shown when 45 µl of plant extract combined with 5 µl of copper ions, when evaluated against Paenibacillus popilliae. An increase of 187.5% and 12.55% (least) was observed in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa on supplementation of copper metal ions.Conclusion: The results suggest that crude extracts from these plants can be used for therapeutic purposes as they possess potent antibacterial properties due to the presence of various phyto chemicals in them. The aqueous plant extracts showed enhanced activity in conjugation with copper metal ions against food spoilage bacteria as compared to ethanolic plant extracts.Â

    Developing as assay to screen inhibitors for various ATP-dependent ligases

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    DNA ligases (EC.6.5.1.1) are key enzymes that catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds at single-stranded or double-stranded breaks between adjacent 5’-PO4 and 3’-OH groups of DNA. These enzymes are essential guardians of genomic integrity and have recently been drawing a lot of attention as novel therapeutic targets in anti-bacterial and anticancer therapies. A novel, non-electrophoretic assay method, based on the strength of interaction of the oligonucleotides with Q-sepharose (a strong anion exchanger), was developed to screen inhibitors of DNA ligases from natural product pools as well as chemical libraries. The binding affinities to Q-sepharose resin of a nicked DNA substrate (created from a 30-mer hairpin oligonucleotide and complementary 32P-labelled 6-mer oligonucleotide) and its sealed, ligated product (36-mer) were determined. Initial optimisation studies were performed with T4 DNA ligase, PBCV-1 DNA ligase and a catalytically active form of human DNA ligase I in the presence of doxorubicin (inhibitor of ATP-dependent ligases). These results when analysed in parallel between the conventional electrophoretic assay and the labelled nick-sealing assay showed that the newly developed assay is a reliable non-electrophoretic method in identifying potent DNA ligase inhibitors. The feasibility of the assay was tested in screening a collection of whole cell mass extracts, obtained from a natural product library from Basidiomycetes, in 96-well format. A novel single DNA ligase was identified, expressed and characterised from Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), a pathogenic protozoan parasite. Protein sequence analysis of TV DNA ligase indicates a strong sequence similarity to DNA ligase I homologues. The activity of recombinant TV DNA ligase I (TVlig) was investigated using protein expressed in E.coli cells. The TVlig gene product is 76 kDa and showed optimal ligation activity on a nicked DNA substrate at pH 7-8 in the presence of 1 mM ATP and (8- 20) mM MgCl2 at 30-38oC. The inhibition of the only DNA ligase present in T. vaginalis might suggest for a rational approach to stop replication and hence propagation of the parasite during infection.EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    Modified Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery: Need of the Day

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    Drug products not only contain “actives” that confer the intended therapeutic benefits such as pain relief or act on particular part of the body, but contain other materials that are also “functional” with respect to the drug product. These are known as excipients and specific functionality which they confer to a particular product is independentupon the process used to add the excipient to the formulation and its exact location within the final dosage form. Introduction of novel drug delivery systems and new drugmoieties lead to the need for new excipients with varied characteristics. Development of new excipient entities and their evaluation is a costly procedure; modificationof existing excipients is very easy, more economical and less time consuming. The development of excipients that are capable of fulfilling multifunctional roles such asenhancing drug bioavailability and drug stability as well as controlling the release of the drug according to the therapeutic needs is one of the most important prerequisitesfor further progress in the design of novel drug delivery systems. The main focus of this article is on synthetic novel excipients that perform multiple functions inpharmaceutical formulations

    Dissolution Enhancement of Domperidone Fast Disintegrating Tablet Using Modified Locust Bean Gum by Solid Dispersion Technique

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    Enhancement of dissolution characteristics of poorly soluble drug Domperidone by solid dispersion technique using modified locust bean gum (MLBG) and further conversion into tablet dosage form with fast dissolving characteristics is being explored in current study. Solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by solvent evaporation technique. F1, F3, F5 and F7 batches of SD (1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7 ratio of drug to MLBG) were prepared. Maximum solubility was observed in 1:3 ratio (F3 batch) in comparison to pure drug. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy studies revealed no interaction of drug to polymer MLBG. Transition from crystalline to amorphous state of drug was analyzed by X-RD studies. SEM studies revealed change in surface characteristics of drug in solid dispersions. In vitro release studies revealed maximum dissolution in F3 (93% in 30 min). Further solid dispersion batches F3 was compressed into tablets including other excipients and crosspovidone as superdisintegrant. The in vitro release from tablet batch revealed better dissolution characteristics (95% in 30 min) in comparison to marketed tablet (50% in 60 min). Therefore, MLBG solid dispersion tablets of domperidone can be a convenient dosage form with enhanced dissolution characteristics

    Breeding Wheat for Biotic Stress Resistance: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects

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    Wheat (T. aestivum) is one of the key food grain crops and is a prominent source of calories and proteins globally. In addition to mushrooming population and rising abiotic stresses in this ongoing climate change era, biotic stresses pose a great threat to wheat production over the globe. Fungal diseases such as rusts, mildew, along with pests like aphid, hinder the potential yield performance of the elite wheat cultivars to a huge extent. The complex nature of plant-parasite interactions is shown to be the decisive factor for the ultimate resistance expression in wheat. However, the advancement of molecular genetics and biotechnology enabled the replacement of the tedious, time and resource consuming cytogenetic analyses of locating APR and ASR genes using molecular mapping techniques. Continuous efforts have been made to mine resistance genes from diverse genetic resources such as wild relatives for combating these diseases and pests, which are repositories of R genes. Additionally, they offer a promising source of genetic variation to be introgressed and exploited for imparting biotic stress tolerance in cultivated wheat. Though just a handful of R-genes are cloned and molecularly characterized in wheat so far, more than 350 resistance genes for various diseases have been identified and successfully introgressed into elite varieties around the globe. Modern genomics and phenomic approaches coupled with next-generation sequencing techniques have facilitated the fine-mapping as well as marker aided selection of resistance genes for biotic stress resistance wheat breeding

    Antimicrobial Activity of Secondary Metabolites in Medicinal Plants: An Update

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    Plants have filled in as a significant wellspring of elements for conventional drugs for centuries. Verifiable records and present day ethno botanical field examines feature their significance in the conventional treatment of irresistible malady. Be that as it may, plants form just a minor level of present collection of FDA-endorsed antimicrobial medications. The present article gives an outline of active components of plants as hint for other wellspring of antimicrobial agents to be used in the battle against microscopic organisms. It additionally surveys the ethno botanical way to deal with sedate disclosure and talks about various inventive focuses for future medication revelation endeavours in this field. Without an uncertainty, antimicrobials are miracle tranquilizers. They have represented a very long time against different irresistible infections and spared a huge number of lives. The ongoing disappointment of antimicrobials because of the sensational rise of multidrug-safe microbes and fast spread of new diseases, be that as it may, prompts wellbeing associations and the pharmaceutical business worldwide to change their methodology and to expand improvement of antimicrobials against quickly rising anti-infection safe microorganisms. In spite of the fact that there is thinking about elective wellsprings of characteristic antimicrobial molecules from plants having different methods of activity, some of which have been utilized in regular medication for a considerable length of time and have appeared to have serious impacts contrasted with other antimicrobials. This examination portrays plant intensity as an elective hotspot for antimicrobial agents

    The Cry of the Baby Girl: Who Will Come to My Rescue?

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