599 research outputs found

    Rapid HIV-1 drug resistance testing in a resource limited setting: the Pan Degenerate Amplification and Adaptation assay (PANDAA)

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    Introduction: pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) can compromise the 3rd 95-95-95 global target for viral load suppression. The high complexity and cost of genotyping assays limits routine testing in many resource limited settings (RLS). We assessed the performance of a rapid HIV-1 drug resistance assay, the Pan Degenerate Amplification and Adaptation (PANDAA) assay when screening for significant HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) such as K65R, K103NS, M184VI, Y181C and G190A. Methods: we used previously generated amplicons from a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2018 and February 2020 of HIV-1 infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve or those reinitiating 1st line ART (18 years or older). The performance of the PANDAA assay in screening K65R, K103NS, M184VI, Y181C, and G190A mutations compared to the reference assay, Sanger sequencing was evaluated by Cohen´s kappa coefficient on Stata version 14 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA). Results: one hundred and twenty samples previously characterized by Sanger sequencing were assessed using PANDAA. PDR was found in 14% (17/120). PDR to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was higher at 13% (16/120) than PDR to nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 3% (3/120). The PANDAA assay showed a strong agreement with the reference assay, i.e. Sanger sequencing for all five target DRMs (kappa (95%CI); 0.93(0.78-0.98)) and NNRTI DRMs (kappa (95%CI); 0.93(0.77-0.980), and a perfect agreement for NRTI DRMs (kappa (95%CI); 1.00(0.54-1.00)). Conclusion: the PANDAA assay is a simple and rapid method to identify significant HIV DRMs in plasma samples as an alternative to Sanger sequencing in many RLS

    Placental Malaria and Mother-to-Child Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in Rural Rwanda

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    We conducted a nested case-control study of placental malaria (PM) and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) within a prospective cohort of 627 mother-infant pairs followed from October 1989 until April 1994 in rural Rwanda. Sixty stored placentas were examined for PM and other placental pathology, comparing 20 HIV-infected mother-infant (perinatal transmitter) pairs, 20 HIV-uninfected pairs, and 20 HIV-infected mothers who did not transmit to their infant perinatally. Of 60 placentas examined, 45% showed evidence of PM. Placental malaria was associated with increased risk of MTCT of HIV-1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–29.1), especially among primigravidae (aOR = 12.0; 95% CI = 1.0–150; P < 0.05). Before antiretroviral therapy or prophylaxis, PM was associated with early infant HIV infection among rural Rwandan women living in a hyper-endemic malaria region. Primigravidae, among whom malaria tends to be most severe, may be at higher risk

    Serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium abscessus complex infection in cystic fibrosis

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    Early signs of pulmonary disease with Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) can be missed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A serological method could help stratify patients according to risk. The objective of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a novel method for investigating IgG activity against MABSC. A prospective study of all patients attending the Copenhagen CF Centre was conducted by culturing for MABSC during a 22-month period and then screening patients with an anti-MABSC IgG ELISA. Culture-positive patients had stored serum examined for antibody kinetics before and after culture conversion. 307 patients had 3480 respiratory samples cultured and were then tested with the anti-MABSC IgG ELISA. Patients with MABSC pulmonary disease had median anti-MABSC IgG levels six-fold higher than patients with no history of infection (434 versus 64 ELISA units; p<0.001). The test sensitivity was 95% (95% CI 74–99%) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 67–78%). A diagnostic algorithm was constructed to stratify patients according to risk. The test accurately identified patients with pulmonary disease caused by MABSC and was suited to be used as a complement to mycobacterial culture

    The Alternative for Germany’s radicalization in historical-comparative perspective

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    This article chronicles the AfD’s rightward repositioning and compares it with the programmatic development of three postwar German parties on the ideological wings. By highlighting factors that tilt the balance of power away from moderate reformers towards hardliners, this comparative analysis sheds light on the conditions that lead a relatively successful party on the ideological wings, such as the AfD, to radicalize its programme. Four variables stand out: whether party hardliners take the blame for the recent election loss; whether they offer a convincing programmatic and strategic alternative to the reformers; whether changes in party composition strengthen hardliners; and whether external factors enhance their weight within the party. The essay concludes that the AfD’s radicalization was unusual, but not exceptional. It is however too early to conclude that the Federal Republic’s distinctive institutions and political culture no longer impose significant costs on parties that shift their programmes away from the centre

    In Vitro HIV-1 Evolution in Response to Triple Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors & In Silico Phenotypic Analysis

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    Background Effectiveness of ART regimens strongly depends upon complex interactions between the selective pressure of drugs and the evolution of mutations that allow or restrict drug resistance. Methods Four clinical isolates from NRTI-exposed, NNRTI-naive subjects were passaged in increasing concentrations of NVP in combination with 1 µM 3 TC and 2 µM ADV to assess selective pressures of multi-drug treatment. A novel parameter inference procedure, based on a stochastic viral growth model, was used to estimate phenotypic resistance and fitness from in vitro combination passage experiments. Results Newly developed mathematical methods estimated key phenotypic parameters of mutations arising through selective pressure exerted by 3 TC and NVP. Concentrations of 1 µM 3 TC maintained the M184V mutation, which was associated with intrinsic fitness deficits. Increasing NVP concentrations selected major NNRTI resistance mutations. The evolutionary pathway of NVP resistance was highly dependent on the viral genetic background, epistasis as well as stochasticity. Parameter estimation indicated that the previously unrecognized mutation L228Q was associated with NVP resistance in some isolates. Conclusion Serial passage of viruses in the presence of multiple drugs may resemble the selection of mutations observed among treated individuals and populations in vivo and indicate evolutionary preferences and restrictions. Phenotypic resistance estimated here “in silico” from in vitro passage experiments agreed well with previous knowledge, suggesting that the unique combination of “wet-” and “dry-lab” experimentation may improve our understanding of HIV-1 resistance evolution in the future

    Adherence and virologic suppression during the first 24 weeks on antiretroviral therapy among women in Johannesburg, South Africa - a prospective cohort study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Adherence is a necessary part of successful antiretroviral treatment (ART). We assessed risk factors for incomplete adherence among a cohort of HIV-infected women initiating ART and examined associations between adherence and virologic response to ART.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A secondary data analysis was conducted on a cohort of 154 women initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART at a single site in Johannesburg, South Africa. Ninety women had been enrolled in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) program and were exposed to single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) >18 months earlier. Women were interviewed pre-treatment and clinical, virologic and adherence data were collected during follow-up to 24 weeks. Incomplete adherence to ART was defined as returning >5% of medications, estimated by pill counts at scheduled visits. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and unadjusted odds ratio (95%CI) were performed, using STATA/SE (ver 10.1).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>About half of the women (53%) were <30 years of age, 63% had <11 years of schooling, 69% were unemployed and 37% lived in a shack. Seven percent of women had a viral load >400 copies/ml at 24 weeks and 37% had incomplete adherence at one or more visits. Incomplete adherence was associated with less education (p = 0.01) and lack of financial support from a partner (p = 0.02) after adjustment for confounders. Only when adherence levels dropped below 80% was there a significant association with viremia in the group overall (p = 0.02) although adherence <95% was associated with viremia in the sdNVP-exposed group (p = 0.03). The main reasons for incomplete adherence were being away from home, busy with other things and forgetting to take their medication.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Virologic response to NNRTI-treatment in the cohort was excellent. However, women who received sdNVP were at greater risk of virologic failure when adherence was <95%. Women exposed to sdNVP, and those with less education and less social support may benefit from additional adherence counseling to ensure the long-term success of ART. More than 80% adherence may be sufficient to maintain virologic suppression on NNRTI-based regimens in the short-term, however complete adherence should be encouraged.</p

    Zidovudine (AZT) Monotherapy Selects for the A360V Mutation in the Connection Domain of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

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    Background: We previously demonstrated in vitro that zidovudine (AZT) selects for A371V in the connection domain and Q509L in ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) which, together with the thymidine analog mutations D67N, K70R and T215F, confer greater than 100-fold AZT resistance. The goal of the current study was to determine whether AZT monotherapy in HIV-1 infected patients also selects the A371V, Q509L or other mutations in the C-terminal domains of HIV-1 RT. Methodology/Principal Findings: Full-length RT sequences in plasma obtained pre- and post-therapy were compared in 23 participants who received AZT monotherapy from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group study 175. Five of the 23 participants reached a primary study endpoint. Mutations significantly associated with AZT monotherapy included K70R (p = 0.003) and T215Y (p = 0.013) in the polymerase domain of HIV-1 RT, and A360V (p = 0.041) in the connection domain of HIV-1 RT. HIV-1 drug susceptibility assays demonstrated that A360V, either alone or in combination with thymidine analog mutations, decreased AZT susceptibility in recombinant viruses containing participant-derived full-length RT sequences or site-directed mutant RT. Biochemical studies revealed that A360V enhances the AZT-monophosphate excision activity of purified RT by significantly decreasing the frequency of secondary RNase H cleavage events that reduce the RNA/DNA duplex length and promote template/primer dissociation. Conclusions: The A360V mutation in the connection domain of RT was selected in HIV-infected individuals that received AZT monotherapy and contributed to AZT resistance. © 2012 Brehm et al

    Tenofovir, Lamivudine and Dolutegravir (TLD) among Rural Adolescents in Zimbabwe, a Cautionary Tale.

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    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and dolutegravir (TLD) as a safe and more effective single daily dose regimen is rolling out in Africa for people living with HIV. Although access to viral load (VL) testing is improving, patients may still be transitioned to TLD with virological failure and potential drug resistance. We reviewed annual VL test results of 390 children and adolescents who had enrolled in a community-based antiretroviral therapy programme in rural Zimbabwe between 2018 and 2019. VL testing was done by the near point of care Simplified Amplification-based Assays (Diagnostics for the Real World, Sunnyvale California) at Chidamoyo Christian Hospital. Rate of virological suppression (VS) on TLD (VL<1000 copies/ml) was assessed. Overall, 184 children and adolescents on TLD were enrolled in this study. The median (IQR) age was 15 (11-19) years, above half of the participants were female (57%). Prior to switching to TLD, rate of VS was 76% (139/184). After a median (IQR) duration of 6.9 (5.5-9.1) months on TLD, VS was observed in 95% (174/184) of the participants. Of the 10 participants with VL ≥1000 copies/ml on TLD, 90% (9/10) were failing on their previous regimens, 6/9 (67%) having been on boosted protease inhibitor- based regimens. A high rate (95%) of VS was observed among children and adolescents on TLD in rural Zimbabwe. TLD may address the problems of virologic failure and emergence of resistance in Africa. However, longer follow up might be needed to ascertain sustained VS in this vulnerable population

    HIV-1 RNA Levels and Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in Blood and Non-Blood Compartments from HIV-1–Infected Men and Women enrolled in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5077

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    Background: Detectable HIV-1 in body compartments can lead to transmission and antiretroviral resistance. Although sex differences in viral shedding have been demonstrated, mechanisms and magnitude are unclear. We compared RNA levels in blood, genital-secretions and saliva; and drug resistance in plasma and genital-secretions of men and women starting/changing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 5077 study. Methods: Blood, saliva and genital-secretions (compartment fluids) were collected from HIV-infected adults (≥13 years) at 14 United-States sites, who were initiating or changing ART with plasma viral load (VL) ≥2,000 copies/mL. VL testing was performed on all compartment fluids and HIV resistance genotyping on plasma and genital-secretions. Spearman rank correlations were used to evaluate concordance and Fisher’s and McNemar’s exact tests to compare VL between sexes and among compartments. Results: Samples were available for 143 subjects; 36% treated (23 men, 29 women) and 64% ‘untreated’ (40 men, 51 women). RNA detection was significantly more frequent in plasma (100%) than genital-secretions (57%) and saliva (64%) (P<0.001). A higher proportion of men had genital shedding versus women (78% versus 41%), and RNA detection was more frequent in saliva versus genital-secretions in women when adjusted for censoring at the limit of assay detection. Inter-compartment fluid VL concordance was low in both sexes. In 22 (13 men, 9 women) paired plasma-genital-secretion genotypes from treated subjects, most had detectable resistance in both plasma (77%) and genital-secretions (68%). Resistance discordance was observed between compartments in 14% of subjects. Conclusions: HIV shedding and drug resistance detection prior to initiation/change of ART in ACTG 5077 subjects differed among tissues and between sexes, making the gold standard blood-plasma compartment assessment not fully representative of HIV at other tissue sites. Mechanisms of potential sex-dependent tissue compartmentalization should be further characterized to aid in optimizing treatment and prevention of HIV transmission. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT0000748
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