10 research outputs found

    Enhancement of feature sets for subjectivity analysis on Malay-English code-switching text

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    A code-switching sentence is a sentence that is constructed using two or more languages. It is a norm for a multi-lingual speaker to use code-switching sentences to share objective and subjective textual information on public platforms such as blogs and social media. Classifying a voluminous code-switching text into subjective and objective classes has posed a new challenge to the current solution of subjectivity analysis. The current solution has limited its design to process only monolingual text. Therefore, the presence of subjective code-switching text is ignored by the current solution. The ignorant limits the capability of the current solution to generate an accurate result of subjectivity analysis on code-switching text. Therefore, this research aims to find a set of solutions for subjectivity analysis on code-switching text. The research process begins by filling in the absence of the subjectivity code-switching corpus. A subjective Malay-English code-switching corpus was built. The corpus contains 35,067 Malay-English code-switching sentences that were harvested from Malay-English blog posts. Each sentence was annotated with either subjective or objective labels. The research process continues with designing the feature sets that represent the subjectivity of the Malay-English code-switching sentences from the corpus. The feature sets were enhanced from the subjective monolingual feature set, that was initially designed to represent subjectivity of English text. The initial subjective monolingual feature sets consist of pronoun, adjective, cardinal number, modal and adverb. The enhanced feature sets consist three feature sets which are embedded code-switching feature set, unified code-switching feature set and stylistic feature set. The embedded code-switching feature used the initial monolingual feature set for English and embeds the feature of Malay language in it. In the unified code-switching feature set, the extracted Malay and English features were unified using an adapted algorithm known as the Malay-English Unified POS. The algorithm predicts the type of each word in a code-switching sentence according to the language of the word. In the stylistic feature set, emoticons, interjections, signs of subjectivity such as exclamation marks and word with exaggerations of spelling were extracted to represent the subjectivity in the code-switching sentences. The effectiveness of the enhanced feature sets was evaluated using the Malay-English code-switching subjectivity corpus as the data set and two machine learning classifiers, which are NaĂŻve-Bayes and Support Vector Machine. The 10-fold cross-validation classification technique was used on different settings of experiments and combinations of feature sets to obtain the performance of the enhanced feature sets. The performance from the combination of unified code-switching and stylistic feature sets has outperformed other feature sets. The combination has consistently performed at the accuracy of 59% using both machine learning classifiers. The consistent performance indicates the combined feature sets are the viable solution for subjectivity analysis on the Malay-English code-switching text

    Subjectivity Analysis In Opinion Mining - A Systematic Literature Review

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    Subjectivity analysis determines existence of subjectivity in text using subjective clues.It is the first task in opinion mining process.The difference between subjectivity analysis and polarity determination is the latter process subjective text to determine the orientation as positive or negative.There were many techniques used to solve the problem of segregating subjective and objective text.This paper used systematic literature review (SLR) to compile the undertaking study in subjective analysis.SLR is a literature review that collects multiple and critically analyse multiple studies to answer the research questions.Eight research questions were drawn for this purpose.Information such as technique,corpus,subjective clues representation and performance were extracted from 97 articles known as primary studies.This information was analysed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technique,affecting elements to the performance and missing elements from the subjectivity analysis.The SLR has found that majority of the study are using machine learning approach to identify and learn subjective text due to the nature of subjectivity analysis problem that is viewed as classification problem.The performance of this approach outperformed other approaches though currently it is at satisfactory level.Therefore,more studies are needed to improve the performance of subjectivity analysis

    LEARNING THROUGH PLAYING: DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE ARCHITECT’S SKILLS WITH BUILDING BLOCKS

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    Software Architecture and Design is a course introduced in the curriculum of Computer Science Bachelor Degree. It is a part of the software engineering body of knowledge to instill good practice in software development. The teaching and learning method of delivering competence in a high level abstraction is challenging in way to obtain knowledge appreciation among students. The experience of deploying learning through playing in a tutorial session encourages students’ engagement, focus and appreciation of the teaching and learning process. The knowledge is delivered, experienced and actively discussed among students to discover more. This paper presents the design and implementation of the learning through playing building blocks for the purpose of understanding software architect’s roles and responsibilities. The analysis based on the observation of the conduct is discussed and lessons learnt are elaborated

    Building A Malay-English Code-Switching Subjectivity Corpus For Sentiment Analysis

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    Combining of local and foreign language in single utterance has become a norm in multi-ethnic region. This phenomenon is known as code-switching. Code-switching has become a new challenge in sentiment analysis when the Internet users express their opinion in blogs, reviews and social network sites. The resources to process code-switching text in sentiment analysis is scarce especially annotated corpus. This paper develops a guideline to build a code-switching subjectivity corpus for a mix of Malay and English language known as MY-EN-CS. The guideline is suitable for any code-switching textual document. This paper built a new MY-EN-CS to demonstrate the guideline. The corpus consists of opinionated and factual sentences that are constructed from combination of words from these the languages. The sentences were retrieved from blogs and MY-EN-CS sentences are identified and annotated either as opinionated or factual. The annotated task yields 0.83 Kappa value rate that indicates the reliability of this corpus

    IT governance framework for e-government initiatives

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    As the penetration of electronic commerce (e-commerce) and electronic business (e-business) occurs in our daily lives, the overall stakeholders of economic growth, including private sector enterprises, governments and society as a whole are beginning to realize the true potential of information technology (IT) and the internet. While the private sector has always ensured that they keep in line with emerging trends, now governments around the globe are also aiming to ensure that all public sector products and services are offered online.Many citizens have a minimal understanding of how government processes are executed or how decisions are made.This lack of awareness and trust can prevent the citizens from actively participating in government services.Thus, E-government security and assurance has become a serious concern of the citizens and private companies who put more reliance on the distributed computing processes in their daily operations.In order to make citizens and private organizations to trust and involves in e-government services, IT Governance should be implemented. As the IT Governance Institute defined that IT governance is the responsibility of the board of directors and executive management. It is an integral part of enterprise governance and consists of the leadership and organisational structures and processes that ensure that the organisation’s IT sustains and extends the organisation’s strategies and objectives.This paper presents an IT governance framework for e-government and introduces an assessment tool designed to measure its effectiveness.The framework builds on the integration between the structural and processes perspectives of IT governance, public services-IT alignment, and senior government executives’ needs

    Positioning Coverage Mismatch In Ontology Integration For Owl-Based Ontology

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    Many challenges are to be addressed when it comes to integrating ontologies. The common challenges are ontology mismatches. It is important for the integrated ontology to model the intended meaning and resolve all the conflicts so that it will not form a false commitment to the system. Much work has paid attention to finding similarities between ontologies. Little work has considered overcoming coverage mismatch, to solve non-existent concepts, the same concepts being defined differently, and differences in hierarchical structure. This paper identifies, analyzes and models coverage mismatches, filling that gap using OWL ontology. This work is an enhancement to the current findings of ontology mismatch

    IT GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK FOR E-GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES

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    ABSTRACT As the penetration of electronic commerce (e-commerce) and electronic business (e-business) occurs in our daily lives, the overall stakeholders of economic growth, including private sector enterprises, governments and society as a whole are beginning to realize the true potential of information technology (IT) and the internet. While the private sector has always ensured that they keep in line with emerging trends, now governments around the globe are also aiming to ensure that all public sector products and services are offered online. Many citizens have a minimal understanding of how government processes are executed or how decisions are made. This lack of awareness and trust can prevent the citizens from actively participating in government services. Thus, E-government security and assurance has become a serious concern of the citizens and private companies who put more reliance on the distributed computing processes in their daily operations. In order to make citizens and private organizations to trust and involves in e-government services, IT Governance should be implemented. As the IT Governance Institute defined that IT governance is the responsibility of the board of directors and executive management. It is an integral part of enterprise governance and consists of the leadership and organisational structures and processes that ensure that the organisation's IT sustains and extends the organisation's strategies and objectives. This paper presents an IT governance framework for e-government and introduces an assessment tool designed to measure its effectiveness. The framework builds on the integration between the structural and processes perspectives of IT governance, public services-IT alignment, and senior government executives' needs
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