55 research outputs found

    The dual role of iNOS in cancer☆

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    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the 10 smallest molecules found in nature. It is a simple gaseous free radical whose predominant functions is that of a messenger through cGMP. In mammals, NO is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) of which there are three isoforms. Neuronal (nNOS, NOS1) and endothelial (eNOS, NOS3) are constitutive calcium-dependent forms of the enzyme that regulate neural and vascular function respectively. The third isoform (iNOS, NOS2), is calcium-independent and is inducible. In many tumors, iNOS expression is high, however, the role of iNOS during tumor development is very complex and quite perplexing, with both promoting and inhibiting actions having been described. This review will aim to summarize the dual actions of iNOS-derived NO showing that the microenvironment of the tumor is a contributing factor to these observations and ultimately to cellular outcomes

    Flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate (NBS-242) inhibits the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and targets β-catenin

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    Background: The Wnt/β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Nitric-oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents consisting of a traditional NSAID attached to an NO-releasing moiety through a chemical spacer. Previously we showed that an aromatic spacer enhanced the potency of a particular NO-NSAID compared to an aliphatic spacer. Methods: We synthesized an NO-releasing NSAID with an aromatic spacer (flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate, NBS-242), and using the human skin cancer cell line A-431, we evaluated its effects on cell kinetics, Wnt/β-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase-3. Results: NBS-242 inhibited the growth of A-431 cancer cells, being ∼15-fold more potent than flurbiprofen and up to 5-fold more potent than NO-flurbiprofen with an aliphatic spacer, the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for growth inhibition being 60 ± 4 μM, 320 ± 20 μM, and 880 ± 65 μM for NBS-242, NO-flurbiprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively. This effect was associated with inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in apoptotic cell population. NBS-242 cleaved β-catenin both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of A-431 cells. NBS-242 activated caspase-3 whose activation was reflected in the cleavage of procaspase-3. To test the functional consequence of β-catenin cleavage, we determined the expression of cyclin D1, a Wnt-response gene. NBS-242 reduced cyclin D1 levels in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings establish a strong inhibitory effect of NBS-242 in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. NBS-242 modulates parameters that are important in determining cellular mass. Keywords: flurbiprofe

    Ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis

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    Osteoporosis affects about 200 million people worldwide and is a silent disease until a fracture occurs. Management of osteoporosis is still a challenge that warrants further studies for establishing new prevention strategies and more effective treatment modalities. For this purpose, animal models of osteoporosis are appropriate tools, of which the ovariectomized rat model is the most commonly used. The aim of this study is to provide a 4-step guideline for inducing a rat model of osteoporosis by ovariectomy (OVX): (1) selection of the rat strain, (2) choosing the appropriate age of rats at the time of OVX, (3) selection of an appropriate surgical method and verification of OVX, and (4) evaluation of OVX-induced osteoporosis. This review of literature shows that (i) Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats are the most common strains used, both responding similarly to OVX; (ii) six months of age appears to be the best time for inducing OVX; (iii) dorsolateral skin incision is an appropriate choice for initiating OVX; and (iv) the success of OVX can be verified 1-3 weeks after surgery, following cessation of the regular estrus cycles, decreased estradiol, progesterone, and uterine weight as well as increased LH and FSH levels. Current data shows that the responses of trabecular bones of proximal tibia, lumbar vertebrae and femur to OVX are similar to those in humans; however, for short-term studies, proximal tibia is recommended. Osteoporosis in rats is verified by lower bone mineral density and lower trabecular number and thickness as well as higher trabecular separation, changes that are observed at 14, 30, and 60 days post-OVX in proximal tibia, lumbar vertebrae and femur, respectively

    Gastrointestinal safety, chemotherapeutic potential, and classic pharmacological profile of NOSH-naproxen (AVT-219) a dual NO- and H2S-releasing hybrid

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    Naproxen (NAP) is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a favorable cardiovascular profile. However, its long-term use may lead to serious gastrointestinal and renal side effects. NOSH- (nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide) releasing naproxen (NOSH-NAP, AVT-219) belongs to a new class of anti-inflammatory agents designed to overcome these limitations. We compared the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and antiplatelet properties of AVT-219 to that of NAP in preclinical animal models. We also evaluated its anticancer effects in 11 human cancer cell (HCC) lines of six different tissue origins and in a chemotherapeutic xenograft mouse model of colon cancer. AVT-219: (1) was orders of magnitude more potent than NAP in inhibiting the growth of cultured HCC; (2) was safe to the stomach, whereas NAP caused significant ulceration; (3) showed strong anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and antiplatelet properties comparable to NAP; and (4) NAP caused a significant rise in plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa), whereas in the AVT-219-treated rats this rise was significantly less. Mechanistically, AVT- 219 was a strong antioxidant, inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2, thus reducing prostaglandin (PG) E2. In xenografts, AVT-219 significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor mass with no sign of GI toxicity, whereas NAP-treated mice died due to GI bleeding. AVT-219 displayed considerable safety and potency in inhibiting HCC growth; was an effective analgesic, antipyretic, antiplatelet, and anti-inflammatory; and was significantly more efficacious than NAP in reducing the growth of established tumors in a xenograft mouse model

    NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties

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    Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6 h post-administration, number/size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1 h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5 h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5 h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Anti-cancer: We examined the effects of NOSH-sulindac on the growth properties of 12 human cancer cell lines of six different tissue origins. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NOSH-sulindac did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas sulindac caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by sulindac was higher than that from NOSH-sulindac. SOD activity was significantly lowered by sulindac but increased by NOSH-sulindac. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Sulindac increased plasma TNFα whereas this rise was lower in the NOSH-sulindac-treated animals. NOSH-sulindac inhibited the growth of all cancer cell lines studied, with potencies of 1000- to 9000-fold greater than that of sulindac. NOSH-sulindac inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G2/M cell cycle block. These results demonstrate that NOSH-sulindac is gastrointestinal safe, and maintains the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and antiplatelet properties of its parent compound sulinsac, with anti-growth activity against a wide variety of human cancer cells

    Nitric Oxide-Releasing Aspirin Suppresses NF-κB Signaling in Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Estrogen receptor negative (ER(−)) breast cancer is aggressive, responds poorly to current treatments and has a poor prognosis. The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in ER(−) tumorigenesis. Aspirin (ASA) is chemopreventive against ER(+) but not for ER(−) breast cancers. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NO-ASA) is a safer ASA where ASA is linked to an NO-releasing moiety through a spacer. In vitro, we investigated anti-proliferation effects of NO-ASA (para- and meta-isomers) against ER(−) breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-23, effects on NF-κB signaling, and reactive oxygen species by standard techniques. In vivo, effects of NO-ASA were evaluated in a mouse xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 cells. p-NO-ASA inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells at 24 h, the respective IC50s were 13 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 μM; ASA had an IC50 of \u3e3000 μM in both cell lines. The IC50s for m-NO-ASA in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 were 173 ± 15 and 185 ± 12 μM, respectively, therefore, implying p-NO-ASA as a stronger inhibitor of growth p-NO-ASA reduced cell growth by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and causing G0/G1 cell cycle block. Activation of NF-κB was inhibited by both isomers as demonstrated by decreases in NF-κB-DNA binding and luciferase activity at 24 h, However, m-NO-ASA produced transient effects at 3 h such as increased NF-κB-DNA-binding, increased levels of nuclear p50, even though both isomers inhibited IκB degradation. Increase in nuclear p50 by m-NO-ASA was associated with translocation of p50 in to the nucleus as observed by immunoflouresence at 3 h. NO-ASA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) as evidenced by overall increases in both H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein) and DHE (dihydroethidium)-derived fluorescence. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-cysteine reversed the m-NO-ASA-mediated translocation of p50 in to the nucleus. In xenografts, p-NO-ASA inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting proliferation (PCNA and tumor volume), inducing apoptosis (TUNEL positive cells) and reducing NF-κB expression. Both isomers inhibit cancer cells, inhibit NF-κB pathway and induce ROS, and have potential as anticancer compounds

    Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by NOSH-aspirin: COX inhibition and modeling☆

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    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon cancer cells, belonging to the same histological subtype, but with different expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes; HT-29 express both COX-1 and COX-2, whereas HCT 15 is COX-null. We also analyzed the effect of these compounds on proliferation and apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Since the parent compound aspirin, inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, we also evaluated the effects of these compounds on COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities and also performed modeling of the interactions between the positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin and COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. We observed that the three positional isomers of NOSH aspirin inhibited the growth of both colon cancer cell lines with IC50s in the nano-molar range. In particular in HT-29 cells the IC50s for growth inhibition were: o-NOSH-ASA, 0.04±0.011 µM; m-NOSH-ASA, 0.24±0.11 µM; p-NOSH-ASA, 0.46±0.17 µM; and in HCT 15 cells the IC50s for o-NOSH-ASA, m-NOSH-ASA, and p-NOSH-ASA were 0.062 ±0.006 µM, 0.092±0.004 µM, and 0.37±0.04 µM, respectively. The IC50 for aspirin in both cell lines was \u3e5 mM at 24 h. The reduction of cell growth appeared to be mediated through inhibition of proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. All 3 positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin preferentially inhibited COX-1 over COX-2. These results suggest that the three positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin have the same biological actions, but that o-NOSH-ASA displayed the strongest anti-neoplastic potential

    Biochemical Society Annual Symposium No. 78 Membrane microenvironment regulation of carnitine palmitoyltranferases I and II

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    Abstract CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase) 1 and CPT2 regulate fatty acid oxidation. Recombinant rat CPT2 was isolated from the soluble fractions of bacterial extracts and expressed in Escherichia coli. The acyl-CoA chain-length-specificity of the recombinant CPT2 was identical with that of the purified enzyme from rat liver mitochondrial inner membranes. The K m for carnitine for both the mitochondrial preparation and the recombinant enzyme was identical. In isolated mitochondrial outer membranes, cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol) increased CPT1 activity 4-fold and the K m for carnitine 6-fold. It decreased the K i for malonyl-CoA inhibition 60-fold, but had no effect on the apparent K m for myristoyl-CoA. Cardiolipin also activated recombinant CPT2 almost 4-fold, whereas phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine activated the enzyme 3-, 2-and 2-fold respectively. Most of the recombinant CPT2 was found to have substantial interaction with cardiolipin. A model is proposed whereby cardiolipin may hold the fatty-acid-oxidizing enzymes in the active functional conformation between the mitochondrial inner and outer membranes in conjunction with the translocase and the acyl-CoA synthetase, thus combining all four enzymes into a functional unit

    NOSH-Aspirin (NBS-1120), a Dual Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide-Releasing Hybrid, Reduces Inflammatory Pain

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    The development of nitric oxide (NO)- and hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has generated more potent anti-inflammatory drugs with increased safety profiles. A new hybrid molecule incorporating both NO and H2S donors into aspirin (NOSH-aspirin) was recently developed. In the present study, the antinociceptive activity of this novel molecule was compared with aspirin in different models of inflammatory pain. It was found that NOSH-aspirin inhibits acetic acid-induced writhing response and carrageenan (Cg)-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in a dosedependent (5–150 lmol/kg, v.o.) manner, which was superior to the effect of the same doses of aspirin. NOSH-aspirin’s antinociceptive effect was also greater and longer compared to aspirin upon complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. Mechanistically, NOSH-aspirin, but not aspirin, was able to reduce the production/release of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1b) during Cg-induced paw inflammation. Furthermore, NOSH-aspirin, but not aspirin, reduced prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia, which was prevented by treatment with a ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) blocker (glibenclamide; glib.). Noteworthy, the antinociceptive effect of NOSH-aspirin was not associated with motor impairment. The present results indicate that NOSH-aspirin seems to present greater potency than aspirin to reduce inflammatory pain in several models. The enhanced effects of NOSH-aspirin seems to be due to its ability to reduce the production of pronociceptive cytokines such as IL-1 b and directly block hyperalgesia caused by a directly acting hyperalgesic mediator in a mechanism dependent on modulation of KATP channels. In conclusion, we would like to suggest that NOSH-aspirin represents a prototype of a new class of analgesic drugs with more potent effects than the traditional NSAID, aspirin

    Hydrogen sulfide-releasing naproxen suppresses colon cancer cell growth and inhibits NF-κB signaling

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    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death due to cancer and the third most common cancer in men and women in the USA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is known to be activated in CRC and is strongly implicated in its development and progression. Therefore, activated NF-κB constitutes a bona fide target for drug development in this type of malignancy. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have established nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a viable chemopreventive strategy against CRC. Our previous studies have shown that several novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing NSAIDs are promising anticancer agents and are safer derivatives of NSAIDs. In this study, we examined the growth inhibitory effect of a novel H2S-releasing naproxen (HS-NAP), which has a repertoire as a cardiovascular-safe NSAID, for its effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle phase transitions, and apoptosis using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We also investigated its effect as a chemo-preventive agent in a xenograft mouse model. HS-NAP suppressed the growth of HT-29 cells by induction of G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis and downregulated NF-κB. Tumor xenografts in mice were significantly reduced in volume. The decrease in tumor mass was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and decreases in NF-κB levels in vivo. Therefore, HS-NAP demonstrates strong anticancer potential in CRC
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