41 research outputs found

    TSEP: Threshold-sensitive Stable Election Protocol for WSNs

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    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are expected to find wide applicability and increasing deployment in near future. In this paper, we propose a new protocol, Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP), which is reactive protocol using three levels of heterogeneity. Reactive networks, as opposed to proactive networks, respond immediately to changes in relevant parameters of interest. We evaluate performance of our protocol for a simple temperature sensing application and compare results of protocol with some other protocols LEACH, DEEC, SEP, ESEP and TEEN. And from simulation results it is observed that protocol outperforms concerning life time of sensing nodes used.Comment: 10th IEEE International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT 12), 201

    Vitamin D deficiency associates with susceptibility to tuberculosis in Pakistan, but polymorphisms in VDR, DBP and CYP2R1 do not

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    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been reported to modify the influence of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to active tuberculosis (TB) in the UK, but this phenomenon has not been investigated in settings with a high TB burden. SNPs in CYP2R1, which encodes a vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme, are known to influence vitamin D status, but their potential role in determining susceptibility to TB has not previously been investigated in any setting. Method: We conducted a case–control study in 260 pulmonary TB patients and 112 controls recruited in Lahore, Pakistan. Analyses were conducted to test for main effects of vitamin D status and SNPs in VDR (rs731236, rs2228570 and rs1544410), DBP (rs7041 and rs4588) and CYP2R1 (rs2060793, rs10500804 and rs10766197) on susceptibility to TB, and to investigate whether these SNPs modify the association between vitamin D status and disease susceptibility. Results: Profound vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ≤ 20 nmol/L) was common among TB patients (118/260, 45 %), and was independently associated with susceptibility to TB (adjusted odds ratio 1.87, 95 % CI 1.15 to 3.04, P = 0.01). However, none of the SNPs investigated associated with susceptibility to TB, either in main effects analysis, or in interaction with vitamin D status. Conclusion: Profound vitamin D deficiency was common among TB patients in this high-burden setting, and was independently associated with disease susceptibility. However, no statistically significant associations between SNPs in the vitamin D pathway and disease susceptibility was demonstrated.Higher Education Commission of Pakistan grant number BM7-139

    Impact of COVID-19 Caronavirus on Poverty in Pakistan: a Case Study of Sindh

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    The current research investigated the COVID-19 is spread vigorously in China, USA, France, Italy, Germany, and European countries and Iran Pakistan being as a neighbor country of China & IranOne was for the incoming Pakistani from various countries, such as Iran, China, Afghanistan, and India. The other was arranged inside various hospitals for COVID-19 positive cases. As hundreds and thousands of Pakistani were in Iran for religious purposes, they were. Most of the students and businessmen, inside China, were not allowed to come back. Handling of large scale influx from Iran was the main problem. Out of the total COVID-19 cases, 78 percent of cases were reported from visitors coming from Iran. Pakistan announced the closure of all schools, colleges & universities with a partial lockdown across the country for major cities