13 research outputs found

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ALCOHOL TAXATION IN THE BALTIC COUNTRIES

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    This paper is focusing on alcohol taxation in the Baltic countries. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate alcohol taxes regressive characteristics across various income groups. Alcohol taxation is rather sensitive issue in the Baltic countries ÔÇô alcohol consumption level is relatively high and public sector revenue depends significantly from alcohol related taxes. Therefore, a system of alcohol taxation in the Baltic countries should consider multiple aspects, such as taxationÔÇÖs social impact, public sector revenue and other theoretical foundations for allocating alcohol taxes over different income groups. PaperÔÇÖs statistical analyses is conducted on the basis of a consumer survey, carried out in all three Baltic countries during 2015-2016. As the study results demonstrate, alcohol taxation is regressive in the Baltic countries and the future tax policy should consider the above-mentioned taxation principles

    Preparation of secondary school teachers in Estonian Republic (1918-1940) in the frame of historical development of teacher education

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    K├Ąesolev v├Ąitekiri annab ├╝levaate keskkooli ja g├╝mnaasiumi ├Ápetajakoolituss├╝steemi kujunemisest Tartu ├ťlikoolis 1918-1940. Uurimist├Â├ eesm├Ąrgiks oli v├Ąlja selgitada, kuidas kujunesid v├Ąlja keskkooli├Ápetajate ettevalmistuse korraldus ja ├Ápingute sisu ning millised olid teiste riikide, eelk├Áige L├Ą├Ąne-Euroopa ja USA haridusuuenduslikud m├Ájud selles. Uurimisobjektiks allikmaterjalidena olid Eesti arhiividokumendid, haridusseadused, pedagoogiline kirjandus ning -perioodika. Uurimus toetub metodoloogiliselt hermeneutilisele traditsioonile, mis t├Ádeb, et ajalookirjutamisel kannavad nii allikad ise kui autori ÔÇťkirjutav mina ÔÇŁ teatud subjektiivsuse pitserit. Uurimismeetodina kasutati t├Â├Âs allikakriitikat ja v├Árdlevat anal├╝├╝si. V├Ąlism├Ájude hindamiseks T├ť ├Ápetajakoolitusele valmis ├╝levaade peamistest arengujoontest ├Ápetajakoolituse sisus ja korralduses Eestit enam m├Ájutanud v├Ąlisriikides ÔÇô Saksamaal, Inglismaal, Soomes, USA-s ja Venemaal. Avamaks ├Ápetajakoolitust siseriiklikult suunanud ├Áigusloomet ja selle m├Áju ├Ápetajate ettevalmistamise erinevate etappide kujunemisele anal├╝├╝siti ja loodi tervikpilt keskkooli├Ápetajate n├Áudlust, kvalifikatsiooni ja ettevalmistust reguleerivast seadusloomest ja selle arengust. Saadud taustinformatsiooni valguses anal├╝├╝siti detailselt ├Ápetajakoolituse traditsioonide kujunemist Tartu ├ťlikoolis. P├Áhiliseks anal├╝├╝siobjektiks sai keskkooli├Ápetajate ettevalmistamiseks loodud didaktilis-metoodilise seminari tegevus, selle sisulised ja organisatsioonilised muutused 1920.-1930. aastatel. K├Árvuti ├Ápetajakoolituse kujunemisest ettekujutuse loomisega selgitati v├Ąlja, milline oli seis ja arengud ├Ápetajakoolitust toetavas pedagoogikateaduses ning pedagoogika ├Áppej├Áudude, sh professuuri roll valdkondliku staatuse ja identiteedi kujunemisel. T├Â├ annab ettekujutuse k├Ąibinud rahvusvahelisest koost├Â├Âst ja suhtlemiskanalitest ning hindab v├Ąlism├Ájude ulatust tollases Eesti ├Ápetajate ettevalmistuses ja pedagoogikateaduses tervikuna. Uurimusest j├Ąreldub, et ├Ápetajakoolituse sisu ja korraldus Tartu ├ťlikoolis olid vaadeldaval perioodil oma arengutaseme ja kvaliteedi poolest h├Ąsti koosk├Álas kasvatusteaduse arengutega ja orientatsioonidega L├Ą├Ąne referentsriikides. ├Ľpetajakoolituse ajakohasust T├ťs toetasid h├Ąsti l├Ąbi m├Áeldud ├Ápetajate riiklikud kvalifikatsioonin├Áuded ja kutseomistamise s├╝steem. Rahvusvahelisele tasemele pedagoogilises uurimist├Â├Âs vaadeldava perioodi l├Ápuks siiski ei j├Áutud. Takistavaks teguriks sai v├Ąhene teadusorganisatsiooniline kaasatus, samuti liigne ettevaatlikkus v├Ąlismaal kraadi├Ápingud l├Ąbinud vilistlaste rakendamisel ├Áppej├Áudude ja teaduritena. Uurimusest tehtud j├Ąreldused n├Ąitavad, et paljud ├Ápetajakoolituses lahendamisel olnud tollased probleemid (teoreetiliste ja praktiliste ├Ápingute seostamine, praktikabaaside loomine, n├Áuded teadust├Â├Âdele, v├Ąlissidemete loomine, kaadripoliitika jne) on taasiseseisvumise j├Ąrgses Tartu ├ťlikoolis taas aktuaalsed ning varasema kogemuse tundmine ja m├Áistmine, loob eeldused nendega h├Álpsamini toime tulekuks.This doctoral dissertation is about the organization of secondary school teacher education at the University of Tartu in the first period of EstoniaÔÇÖs independence (1918-1940). The study investigates the development and content of teacher education and the role played by Western European and North American innovative educational ideas as agents of change. The main research source materials of this study were Estonian archival records, educational legislation, educational literature and periodicals. The study is based on the hermeneutic tradition which admits that in a historiography the archival material used and ÔÇťthe writing meÔÇŁ always bear an impress of subjectivity. For attenuating biases in the interpretation of archival records a source critical approach was employed. To the end of identifying and assessing foreign influences on the emerging system of teacher education, a survey of the main developmental trends of countries (Germany, Great Britain, Finland, USA and Russia) that had a significant impact on Estonian educational thinking was carried out. Educational legislation and its impact on teacher education, viewed as the internal context of the developmental stages in secondary teacher education at the University of Tartu, was identified by analyzing it and creating a holistic picture of the demand for secondary school teachers and regulations pertaining to the qualifications and preparation of teachers and its development. The background information generated was used as a main framework for a detailed analysis of the development of the traditions of teacher education at University of Tartu. The activities of the Didactical-Methodological Seminar, established for the preparation of secondary school teachers, and changes in the content and organization of its activities in 1920s and 1930s served as the main objects of analysis. Along with portraying the developments in teacher education, work also focused on assessing the level of pedagogical research that supported developments in teacher education and the role of the faculty, including how professorships shaped the status and identity of the field. This dissertation details evidence of the existing international cooperation and channels of communications of the faculty, and it estimates the scope of foreign influences on Estonian teacher education and on the educational sciences in their entirety. It was found that the organization and content of teacher education at the University of Tartu, in terms of their levels of development and quality, were well in line with the developmental trends and orientations in the Western reference countries during this period. This harmony was achieved by well-elaborated national qualification requirements and licensing system for teachers, and by balancing national and international orientations when introducing educational innovations. However, the period under investigation was too short-lived for educational research to attain an internationally-accepted level. This was due to limited participation in the activities of professional research organizations and international conferences. One of the retarding factors in the 1930s was also an excessive apprehensiveness towards offering faculty positions to alumni of Tartu University who had completed their doctoral studies abroad. The conclusions of this study show that many of the issues (linking theory with practice, providing teaching practice at schools, quality of scientific research, international connections, faculty policy, and so forth) that teacher educators at the University of Tartu were facing in the 1920s and 1930s became topical again after Estonia regained its national independence in 1991, and that knowledge and understanding of the historical experiences could be helpful in coping with these similar issues today

    Kriitiline ja refleksiivne vaade interkultuurilisele haridusele

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    Andreas Jacobssoni ja Fred Dervini Teacher Education for Critical and Reflexive Interculturality (2021) raamatus avatakse mitmekultuurilise hariduse rahvusvaheline kontekst. Autorid kutsuvad ├╝les vaatama mitmet├Ąhenduslikku ja poliitiliselt laetud m├Áistet kriitiliselt ja anal├╝├╝sivalt. Nad soovitavad v├Ąltida sisut├╝hje loosungeid ja h├Ąid praktikaid edastavaid valmis retsepte ja r├Áhutavad allikakriitilisust, et seista vastu desinformatsioonile v├Ái infomanipulatsioonidele. T├Ąnase Ukraina s├Ája foonil on autorite selline k├Ąsitlusviis ├Ą├Ąrmiselt aktuaalne

    Hariduse d├╝naamikast

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    S├Ádadevahelisel Eestil ei ole ette n├Ąidata ├╝learu palju akadeemilisi naisi, kelle karj├Ą├Ąr viis Eesti maailmakaardile. Seda enam on p├Áhjust t├Ąhele panna "Eesti m├Átteloo" sarjas ilmunud Hilda Taba doktoriv├Ąitekirja ÔÇ×The dynamics of education: A methodology of progressive educational thoughtÔÇŁ (1932) t├Álget eesti keelde. K├Ánealuses raamatus tutvustab Hilda Taba oma vaateid haridusele ja ├Ápilaste arengule, andes ├╝levaate toonases haridusteaduses rakendatud meetoditest ja teooriatest ning kritiseerides nende valguses ├Áppeainete korraldust ja ├Áppekavade ├╝lesehitust. Ta on kategooriliselt vastu valmist├Ádede edastamisele ja ├Áppesisu m├Á├Ádutundetule laiendamisele, leides, et ├Áppekava planeerimise eesm├Ąrk peab olema ├Áppija kumulatiivne, j├Ąrjepidev ja katkematu areng

    ├Ľpetajahariduse sajand rahvus├╝likoolis. A Century of Teacher Education at the University of Tartu

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    The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the development of educational science and teacher education during the 95 years of the University of Tartu as an Estonian-language university. The article views teacher education throughout three historical periods. The first period includes the establishment of the Chair of Pedagogy in 1920 and the development of teacher education in the interwar period. The second period entails the Soviet Period and its diverse influences on teacher preparation. The third period involves the reforms and developments that occurred after the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991.The field of teacher education has emerged as one of the largest in the university as measured by the number of students during the aforementioned period. At the same time, the content and organisation of teacher education has gone through major changes. Although history has seen eras of both progress and decline, the main components of teacher educationÔÇöpreparation in a subject field and general pedagogical studies in combination with teaching practice at schoolÔÇöhave remained at the centre of the specialty throughout time.The attention paid to the smooth functioning of teaching practice has been a constant topic during this long time period. In the first decades of the Soviet rule the practice period in teacher education was reduced to a minimum. With the eventual liberalisation of the Soviet rule school practice emerged again, largely in a form similar to that applied in the interwar years, while the importance of practice started to grow even more in time.This article highlights that the most radical changes in teacher education were in the theoretical content of the teacher preparation. In the 1920s Germany remained the main catalyst in the development of pedagogy. The earlier theoretical orientation according to which the emphasis was on educational aims and learning about the past began to recede in the 1930s. In light of new sub-disciplines (didactics, educational psychology), pedagogy acquired increasingly more attributes of an applied science. After 1944 the Communist ideology became dominant in the curriculum and textbooks. In the 1960s the original textbooks written by the professors of the University of Tartu appeared, and a program of pedagogy which was in use until late 1980s was developed.Many issues (conceptual bases of teacher education curricula, optimising student teachersÔÇÖ school practice) that were topical in Estonian teacher education in the interwar and post-war period became relevant again after Estonia regained its national independence in 1991. In conclusion, the historical trajectory of teacher education reveals the interesting fact that the essential issues of the field share many similarities over different periods. Therefore, a good knowledge of the historical process is essential for the development of teacher education in the present and future. It could help us uncover the historical ideas, concepts and scenarios that we unconsciously enact when visualising the processes of the future.

    E-portfoolio roll kutse├Ápetajakoolituse ├╝li├Ápilaste ├Ápingute toetamisel

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    Siinses uurimuses seati eesm├Ąrgiks selgitada v├Ąlja kutse├Ápetajakoolituse ├╝li├Ápilaste arusaamad kutsestandardile toetuva e-portfoolio rollist ├Ápingute toetamisel ning nende kogemused e-portfoolio koostamise protsessis. Viie fookusr├╝hma intervjuu (n = 19) induktiivse sisuanal├╝├╝si tulemused n├Ąitavad, et kutsestandardile toetuvat e-portfooliot kogetakse ├Ápingute teljena, mis muudab n├Ąhtavaks varasema erialase t├Â├Âkogemuse, ├Áppimise ja arengu ning kujundab arusaama kutse├Ápetaja elukutsest. Samas r├Áhutavad tulemused e-portfoolio l├Áimimise olulisust kutse├Ápetaja bakalaureuse├Áppekavasse ning vajadust t├Áhustada juhendamist eesk├Ątt protsessi alguses, et toetada ├╝li├Ápilaste toimetulekut e-portfoolio avatud olemuse ning kohati vastuoluliste eesm├Ąrkidega.  Summar

    Eess├Ána

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    Paljud Eesti ├Ápetajad t├Â├Âtavad iga p├Ąev mitmekeelsete ja kultuuritaustalt erinevate ├Áppijatega. EHA erinumber pakub teadusuuringute ja raamatututvustuste n├Ąol teadmisi ja m├Átteid, kuidas selle t├Â├Âga paremini toime tulla. Eess├Ánas aitavad toimetajad lugejal luua vajalikku tausta, andes l├╝hi├╝levaate Eestis 2000ndatel aastatel tehtud teemakohastest uuringutest. Erinumbri artiklite temaatika on lai: haaratud on lasteaed, p├Áhikool, k├Árgkool, nii t├Ąiskasvanud kui ka erivajadustega keele├Áppijad. Lugeja saab teada, milline on Iirimaa kogemus sisser├Ąndetaustaga ├Ápilastega ja USA teadlase vaade kahesuunalise keelek├╝mblusmudeli rakendumisele Eestis

    Policies and practices for teaching sociocultural diversity - A framework of teacher competences for engaging with diversity (2010)

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    Teacher education institutions have a crucial role in the process of developing competences for diversity in education. The Council of Europe Project ÔÇťPolicies and practices for teaching socio-cultural diversityÔÇŁ is intended as a response to certain key questions connected with initial teacher education and the introduction of common principles in relation to the management of school diversity. It is therefore addressed both to education policy-makers, and to teacher educators.This publication (Volume 3 in the project series) has key competences as a focal point, opening up for discussions about what is needed both at the level of teacher education institutions, schools and individual teachers. In this volume it has been equally important to give space for the process of developing competences for teaching socio-cultural diversity

    Nauj┼│j┼│ imigrant┼│ mokymas Estijos mokyklose ÔÇô i┼í┼í┼źkiai palaikymo tinklams

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    Modern school administration is more and more focused on teamwork and it is of utmost importance to find suitable cooperation formats along with different networks to support the education and adaptation of the new immigrants. The main goal of this research paper is to describe and analyze the experiences, opinions and expectations of school administration and support specialists about the ways of teaching and supporting the newly arrived immigrant pupils (refugees, asylum seekers and other immigrant children who lived in Estonia for less than five years). In the empirical part of the research, data is collected with semistructured interviews from the administrative or support team members of 12 Estonian schools which have had experiences with teaching new immigrants. Qualitative inductive content analysis is used as the method of data analysis. The results of the research show that the attitudes of the recipient school societies are rather positive. Language learning is set as a priority due to its being the main avenue for supporting integration and involvement. The shortage of adapted textbooks, lack of support specialists and limited resources to motivate teachers and compensate the extra work were brought out as the main bottlenecks in involving new immigrants.Moderni┼│j┼│ mokykl┼│ administracijos yra vis labiau susitelkusios ─» darb─ů komandose. Ypatingas d─Śmesys yra skiriamas tinkamiausi┼│ bendradarbiavimo form┼│ ir ─»vairi┼│ tinkl┼│, kurie gal─Śt┼│ paremti nauj┼│j┼│ imigrant┼│ ugdym─ů ir adaptacij─ů, paie┼íkai. Pagrindinis ┼íio straipsnio tikslas yra apra┼íyti ir analizuoti mokykl┼│ administratori┼│ ir ugdymo pagalbos specialist┼│ patirtis, nuomones ir l┼źkes─Źius, susijusius su naujai atvykusi┼│ imigrant┼│ (pab─Śg─Śli┼│, prieglobs─Źio pra┼íytoj┼│, kit┼│ imigrant┼│, kurie Estijoje gyvena ma┼żiau nei penkerius metus) vaik┼│ mokymu ir ugdymo pagalba. Empirin─Śs tyrimo dalies duomenys surinkti atliekant pusiau strukt┼źruotus interviu su administracij┼│ ir ugdymo pagalbos specialist┼│ komand┼│ nariais i┼í 12 mokykl┼│ Estijoje, kurie turi patirties mokant naujuosius imigrantus. Surinkti duomenys buvo analizuojami atliekant kokybin─Ö indukcin─Ö turinio analiz─Ö. Tyrimo rezultatai rodo, kad mokykl┼│ bendruomeni┼│ po┼żi┼źris ─» naujuosius imigrantus yra pozityvus. Kalbos mokymas ─»vardijamas prioritetu, nes tai yra pagrindinis kelias norint pasiekti integracij─ů ir ─»traukim─ů. Pritaikyt┼│ vadov─Śli┼│, ugdymo pagalbos specialist┼│ tr┼źkumas bei riboti i┼ítekliai mokytojams motyvuoti ir kompensuoti papildomas darbo valandas buvo nurodyti kaip pagrindin─Śs kli┼źtys ─»traukiant naujuosius imigrantus
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