191 research outputs found

    MÄlklassning av skogens sociala vÀrden

    Get PDF
    I takt med en tilltagande urbanisering ökar betydelsen av den tÀtortsnÀra skogen. För boende i större stÀder utgör den tÀtortsnÀra skogen i mÄnga fall förmodligen den enda interaktionen med naturen. Det finns luckor i den befintliga kunskapen kring den tÀtortsnÀra skogen och skogens sociala vÀrden. Det finns ett starkt samband mellan sociala vÀrden och den tÀtortsnÀra skogen. Skogsbruksplanen Àr skogsÀgarens verktyg för att planera sitt brukande. Skogsbruksplanen Àr i dagens utförande otillrÀcklig för att utpeka och beskriva mÄl som frÀmst berör sociala vÀrden. De fyra traditionella mÄlklasserna Àr otillrÀckliga i den aspekten. Syftet med examensarbetet var att undersöka behovet inom skoglig planering av en femte mÄlklass med inriktning sociala vÀrden. Ett delsyfte med examensarbetet var att utarbeta ett förslag pÄ en sÄdan mÄlklass. Kandidatarbetet hade sÄvÀl kvalitativ som kvantitativ ansats. Studien har utförts i form av en enkÀtundersökning och intervjustudie. Arbetet avgrÀnsades till de kommunala tjÀnstemÀn som hade det skogliga ansvarsomrÄdet hos landets kommuner. Av denna studie framkom att en majoritet av de kommunala tjÀnstemÀnnen sÄg ett mer eller mindre starkt behov inom samtliga nivÄer av skoglig planering, för en femte mÄlklass med inriktning mot de sociala vÀrdena. Drygt hÀlften av tjÀnstemÀnnen sÄg en relativt hög potential hos en femte mÄlklass för en minskad andel meningsskiljaktigheter och en ökad acceptans kring arbetet med den kommunala skogen. Med stöd av tidigare studier föreslogs att ytterligare en mÄlklass för sociala vÀrden introduceras. MÄlklassen SS (sociala vÀrden skötsel) förslogs för bestÄnd vars skötselinriktning endast utgÄr frÄn de sociala vÀrdena. NÄgra slutsatser ur studien Àr att de fyra traditionella mÄlklasserna upplevs vara otillrÀckliga för att signalera samtliga vÀrden med skogen. DÀrav föreligger det ett utpekat behov av ytterligare en mÄlklass för skogens sociala vÀrden.With increasing urbanization, the importance of the urban forest is increasing. For residents of larger cities, the urban forest is in many cases probably the only interaction with nature. There are gaps in the existing knowledge of the urban forest and the social values of the forest. There is a strong relation between social values and the urban forest. The forestry plan is the forest owner's tool for planning its ownership. Today's forestry plan is limited in regard of identifying and describing goals that primarily affect the social values. The four traditional target classes are insufficient in that respect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the need for a fifth target class with a focus on social values, in forest planning. A sub-purpose of this study was to prepare a proposal for such a target class. The study had both qualitative and quantitative approach. The study was conducted in the form of a survey and interview study. The work was limited to the municipal officials who had the forest area of responsibility of the municipality. From this study, it was found that a majority of the municipal officials saw a more or less strong need in all levels of forest planning, for a fifth target class with a focus on social values. More than half of the officials saw a relatively high potential of a fifth target class for a reduced proportion of disagreements and increased acceptance around the work on the municipal forest. With support from previous studies, it was suggested that a further target class for social values be introduced. The target class SS (social values management) was proposed for stocks whose care orientation is based only on the social values. Some conclusions from the study are that the four traditional target classes are perceived to be insufficient to signal all values with the forest. Therefore, there is a marked need for another target class for the forest's social values

    Innovation in Healthcare, An analysis of the regional preconditions in SkÄne for innovation in digital healthcare.

    Get PDF
    The upcoming changes in the demographic structure will put pressure on the healthcare system in SkĂ„ne. Tax financed hospitals with more beds, doctors, nurses and other personnel will not be the solution to cope with the upcoming demands. Increasing healthcare productivity is one way, where digital healthcare is a potential part of the solution. One of the major limitations of the digital healthcare market is not the shortage of technology but rather the innovation-uptake is slow in healthcare compared to other sectors. The problem is to understand why the technology uptake is slow, which barriers prevents uptake and what decelerate continued innovation in the healthcare sector. Purpose: The main purpose aim to describe and analyze the regional preconditions in SkĂ„ne for innovation in digital healthcare. The goal has been to identify strengths, opportunities and various barriers that prevents or delay innovation in the region. Identifying and proposing innovative health strategies with the TOWS-framework. Sub purposes are to identify upcoming global trends in healthcare and gather a list of digital healthcare projects in the region. Methodology: The methodology for gathering data for this master thesis consists of a combination of primary and secondary data. Collected from secondary research, explorative quantitative survey study, semi structured interviews with key actors, attending and observing national and local eHealth events. Conclusions: The region of SkĂ„ne in the south of Sweden got the possibilities for a good climate for innovation in healthcare. There is a possibility to gather ideas and projects for incremental innovation in the region. Both the healthcare professionals and patients are sitting with valuable expertise and knowledge, which at this time is not fully utilized. To get a more radical change in the healthcare sector some barriers need to be broken down. These changes need a more strategic and political approach, many of them need to be brought up on a national level. Today security laws regulation the use of information need to be modified to allow the use of unidentified healthcare data. Making it easier for the academia and companies to use this information would allow them to pursue new research areas and possible innovations. For new entrepreneurs and businesses there is need to learn how to use the reimbursement model to support their business plans. It is also important that the way into the healthcare sector, procurements, is built to handle and promote these new ventures. SkĂ„ne has a gap in expertise regarding semantic interoperability, both in the business and academic sector. This is not a unique problem for SkĂ„ne and can be seen in other regions as well. Collaborations with other regions and worldwide expertise is needed to fill this gap and promote advances in this field. Comparing to other countries, Sweden are ranked 3rd on the list of innovation uptake in healthcare just beaten by Denmark and Estonia. Third place in digital healthcare solution implementation is good but we can’t sit down and be satisfied with the result. Even if you are in first place you need to constantly revaluate your position and look for areas to improve. The region have most of the building blocks to get a good climate for innovation in digital healthcare. Region SkĂ„ne have to join the blocks together, here is a unique opportunity to facilitate cross-border meetings, be a collaborate voice, and put digital healthcare on the agenda. There is a need for a link into healthcare to get providers, doctors and nurses to share their ideas and needs to business, entrepreneurs, and the academia. Lobbying to politicians and policymakers should be done to raise the awareness and try to change some regulations and laws that acts as barriers for innovation today

    LantmÀnnens emission av förlagsandelar och handeln med emissionsinsatser

    Get PDF
    Under 2009 lanserade LantmÀnnen handel med emissionsinsatser och emitterade förlagsandelar. Handeln med emissionsinsatser syftar till att behÄlla emissionsinsatserna i LantmÀnnen, dÄ mÄnga av medlemmarna Àr Àldre och kommer att begÀra uttrÀde ur föreningen kommande Är. Handel med emissionsinsatser ger möjlighet för medlemmar att köpa och sÀlja emissionsinsatserna pÄ en andrahandsmarknad. En vÀlfungerande marknad innebÀr en minskad risk för att emissionsinsatserna försvagar LantmÀnnens soliditet. Emissionen av förlagsandelar gjordes för att öka det individuella kapitalet och ge medlemmarna en möjlighet till ökad vÀrdetillvÀxt i LantmÀnnen. BÄde handeln med emissionsinsatser och emissionen av förlagsandelar hade Àven som uppgift att stÀrka medlemmarnas Àgarroll i LantmÀnnen. Instrumenten har hittills bemötts med ett lÄgt intresse frÄn medlemmarnas sida. Syftet med detta examensarbete Àr att kartlÀgga motiven till de beslut, som LantmÀnnens medlemmar har fattat i frÄgor rörande de olika finansiella instrumenten. Medlemmarnas beslut analyseras utifrÄn socialpsykologisk teori. Studien har genomförts i form av en webb baserad enkÀt, dÀr 1000 frÄgeformulÀr skickats ut till LantmÀnnens medlemmar via e-post. Svarsfrekvensen var cirka 33 %

    Metagenomic characterisation of the gastrointestinal virome of neonatal pigs

    Get PDF
    Microorganisms that colonise the gastrointestinal tract are responsible for a large portion of the genetic diversity of the body. These microorganisms are of bacterial, archaeal and viral origin. The living space of these microorganisms, the microbiome, holds numerous interactions both between each other and the host. The viral part of the microbiome, the virome, consists of a multitude of virus species. These viruses infect and modulate cells from all three domains of life. Even though viruses have been acknowledged for their abilities to induce disease in its host, knowledge about the total diversity of viruses within the virome, and the role it plays in health and disease, is so far scarce. It is thought that the virome co-evolved with the host and that its establishment in mammals occurs early in life. The virome can be studied by the use of viral metagenomics, the study of all viral genetic material within a sample. Viral metagenomics was used in this thesis to generate datasets for comparative metagenomics. These datasets were then used for disease investigation and to compare similarities in the viromes of two mammalian species, pigs and humans. This thesis establishes a methodological framework for studying the virome in mammals, by use of viral metagenomics. A methodology for amplifying the metagenome prior to sequencing was assessed and a software for bioinformatics analysis of viral metagenomes was developed. With the methodologies developed herein, the eukaryotic virome of neonatal piglets suffering from diarrhoea was investigated. Several known enteric viruses were detected using viral metagenomics on healthy and diarrhoeic neonatal piglets. However, no virus was present exclusively within sick or healthy piglets and no virologial cause could be established for the neonatal diarrhoea. Comparative viral metagenomics was also used to establish if similarities existed between neonates of porcine and human origin, as well as between adults and neonates. Similarities were detected between adults of both species, who seems to be sharing a considerable part of their virome. There was also a notable difference between neonatal viromes and adult viromes, further supporting established theories about diversification over time of the virome

    High Serum Total IgE Predicts Poor Long-term Outcome in Atopic Dermatitis

    Get PDF
    Most patients with severe atopic dermatitis have elevated serum IgE levels, but there has been little research into IgE as a predictive biomarker in long-term disease outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of IgE and other factors in patients with atopic dermatitis in a university clinic setting. There were 169 eligible patients (14-78 years) with a mean follow-up of 4.15 years. High baseline IgE (>= 10,000 IU/ml) was the most important patient-related factor for a poor longterm outcome, being negatively associated with good treatment response (odds ratio (OR) 0.062, p=0.002). Only 14.3% of patients with this high baseline IgE achieved a good treatment response in follow-up, compared with 79.7% in patients with lower (Peer reviewe

    Adsorption and surface dissociation of HNCO on Pt(110) surfaces: LEED, AES, ELS and TDS studies

    Get PDF
    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a pulmonary sampling technique for characterization of drug concentrations in epithelial lining fluid and alveolar cells. Two hypothetical drugs with different pulmonary distribution rates (fast and slow) were considered. An optimized BAL sampling design was generated assuming no previous information regarding the pulmonary distribution (rate and extent) and with a maximum of two samples per subject. Simulations were performed to evaluate the impact of the number of samples per subject (1 or 2) and the sample size on the relative bias and relative root mean square error of the parameter estimates (rate and extent of pulmonary distribution). The optimized BAL sampling design depends on a characterized plasma concentration time profile, a population plasma pharmacokinetic model, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the BAL method and involves only two BAL sample time points, one early and one late. The early sample should be taken as early as possible, where concentrations in the BAL fluid a parts per thousand yen LOQ. The second sample should be taken at a time point in the declining part of the plasma curve, where the plasma concentration is equivalent to the plasma concentration in the early sample. Using a previously described general pulmonary distribution model linked to a plasma population pharmacokinetic model, simulated data using the final BAL sampling design enabled characterization of both the rate and extent of pulmonary distribution. The optimized BAL sampling design enables characterization of both the rate and extent of the pulmonary distribution for both fast and slowly equilibrating drugs

    Influence of territorial variables on the performance of wildfire detection systems in the Iberian Peninsula

    Get PDF
    This article belongs to the Special issue: Fire use policies and practices in Europe: solving the Fire ParadoxWildfire detection systems planning is an essential component of national and regional wildfire management policies. The common resources usually used in wildfire detection are lookout towers, terrestrial mobile brigades, aerial reconnaissance and the general public. The objectives of this paper are (i) to analyse the relative importance of the different detection systems in Portugal and Spain, according to their spatial and temporal patterns, (ii) to assess the territorial variables related to the performance of fire detection systems in the Iberian Peninsula, and (iii) to develop an explanatory model aiming to inform fire detection policies. Pursuing this aim, a common wildfire and territorial database for the whole Iberian Peninsula was developed, thus enabling common cartographic and statistical analyses. Results show the importance of land cover variables and population density on the proportion of fire detections made by the different systems in both countries. Despite certain national specificities, many common features were found, allowing the identification of general patterns of fire detection distribution and performance for the Iberian Peninsula. Models developed at the regional and sub-regional levels indicate that high population density and high proportion of forestlands are associated with higher proportion of detection by population, whereas higher proportion of shrublands corresponds to higher proportions of detections by other systems, particularly lookout towers. The conclusions obtained and the approaches applied could be used with similar objectives in other countries and regions to inform policy decisions regarding the allocation of resources for wildfire detection

    Behavioral effects on European perch (Perca fluviatilis) after exposure to a psychoactive pharmaceutical under different temperatures and predation risks

    Get PDF
    AnvĂ€ndandet av antidepressiva och Ă„ngestdĂ€mpande lĂ€kemedel, som ex. oxazepam, ökar i samhĂ€llet vilket kan leda till höga halter i vĂ„ra vattendrag. Tidigare studier har visat att abborrar som blir utsatta för miljörelevanta koncentrationer av oxazepam Ă€ndrar sitt beteende. Denna studie undersöker om tvĂ„ ekologiskt viktiga beteenden hos abborre, aktivitet och socialitet, pĂ„verkas av vattentemperatur, predationsrisk och det Ă„ngestdĂ€mpande lĂ€kemedlet oxazepam. Studien gjordes pĂ„ vilda juvenila abborrar (Perca fluviatilis) som fĂ„ngades och hölls i ett labb dĂ€r de senare exponerades under 7 dygn för behandlingar med oxazepam (10ÎŒg/L), eller utan, kombinerat med tvĂ„ olika temperaturer (10°C och 18°C) och predationstryck (risk att bli uppĂ€ten). Predationstryck simulerades genom att anvĂ€nda vatten frĂ„n en fisktank med GĂ€dda (Esox lucius). Resultatet visade att temperaturskillnaden pĂ„verkade abborrarna signifikant och abborrarna blev mer aktiva och sociala vid en högre temperatur. DĂ€remot visade behandlingarna med oxazepam och predationstryck ingen effekt pĂ„ varken socialitet eller aktivitet. En förklaring kan vara att den starka korrelationen mellan temperatur och beteende hĂ€mmade effekterna frĂ„n de andra behandlingar.The use of antidepressants has increased rapidly over the past decades. Antidepressants can, according to previous studies, influence animal behavior, not least among fish. The purpose of this study was to explore how a common antidepressant (oxazepam) affects social and active behavior of fish. Wild juvenile European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were for 7 days exposed to the antidepressant oxazepam (10ÎŒg/L), or not, in combination with two levels of water temperatures (10°C and 18°C) and predation pressures. Predation pressure was simulated by using water from a fish tank with Northern pike (Esox lucius). Perch behavior was affected significantly by water temperature which resulted in more social and active behaviors in the higher temperature. However, treatments with oxazepam and predation pressure did not show any response. An explanation might be that the strong correlation between temperature and behavior depressed other treatments results

    Misslyckande inom lantbruksföretag

    Get PDF
    Antalet lantbruksföretag har halverats sedan 1970 talet i Sverige. MĂ„nga avvecklingar sker pĂ„ grund av misslyckanden i olika former. PĂ„ grund av denna problematik har det i detta arbete forskats pĂ„ vad som orsakar dessa, vilka misslyckanden som sker samt hur det gĂ„r att förbĂ€ttra arbetet med misslyckade lantbruksföretag. I detta arbete har vi hittat mycket forskning och arbeten som gjorts pĂ„ misslyckande inom företag. Men det finns mindre forskning som Ă€r specifik inriktat pĂ„ misslyckande inom den agrara nĂ€ringen. Syftet med arbetet Ă€r att sprida kunskap om vilket typ av stöd som finns idag till misslyckade lantbruksföretag, vilket stöd som borde finnas i framtiden, vem som erbjuder denna typ av hjĂ€lp idag och vilka som bör erbjuda hjĂ€lp i framtiden. UtifrĂ„n en djupgĂ„ende litteraturundersökning samt kvalitativa intervjuer med sju intressenter inom den agrara nĂ€ringen diskuteras frĂ„gor kring misslyckade lantbruksföretag. Litteraturstudien grundas pĂ„ forskning som Ă€r gjord kring misslyckanden inom företag bĂ„de i Sverige och vĂ€rlden. I litteraturundersökningen definieras vad ett misslyckande Ă€r och vad som kan orsaka ett misslyckande samt hur dess konsekvenser pĂ„verkar lantbruksföretagare ekonomisk, socialt och psykologiskt. Arbetet undersöker Ă€ven externa faktorer till misslyckanden som lagar, bidrag och undervisning samt hur de pĂ„verkar lantbrukares beteende. FrĂ„gestĂ€llningen Ă€r vilka stöd det finns för misslyckade lantbruksföretag, vilka intressenter som Ă€r intresserade av att hjĂ€lpa, vad dessa intressenter vet om problemet med misslyckande i lantbruksföretag samt Ă„tgĂ€rder för framtiden. Resultatet i detta arbete Ă€r att misslyckande inom lantbruksföretag anses frĂ„n samhĂ€llet vara nĂ„got negativt. Detta leder till ett slutet diskussionsklimat som missgynnar utvecklingspotentialen hos företagaren. LRF har ett hjĂ€lpprogram till misslyckade lantbrukare som heter Bonde kompis, flera rĂ„dgivningsföretag anser att deras rĂ„dgivning Ă€r ett hjĂ€lpmedel för misslyckade företagare. MĂ„nga av de intressenter vi intervjuat vill gĂ€rna jobba mer med hjĂ€lp i framtiden men anser att staten och myndigheter kan göra mycket genom att minska pressen pĂ„ lantbruksföretagarna.The number of farmers in Sweden have decreased to half since the 1970’s. Many of the shutdowns are caused by different type of failures. As this is the reality we have dedicated this work to describe the cause of failures, the kind of failures and how it is possible to reduce entrepreneurial failures in farm businesses in the future. We have found a lot of research regarding venture failure, but we have not found much research regarding failures in farm entrepreneurship. The purpose of this thesis is to acknowledge the kind of support that is available today, what support that is needed in the future, who is providing support today and who should provide support in the future. Based on analysis of existing literature and on qualitative interviews with seven different stakeholders in the agricultural business the thesis discusses questions regarding failed farm businesses. The literature survey focused on research on business failures in Sweden and the rest of the world. We have defined what a failure is, what causes failures and how the consequences of failures affect farmers economically, socially and psychologically. This paper also examines external factors causing failure, such as laws, substitutes and education and how it affects farmers behaviour. The questions addressed by this thesis include the kind of support that is available to failed farm businesses, what stakeholders are interested in providing support, what is known about the problem and possible solutions for the future. Our conclusion is that business failures in the agricultural sector are viewed negatively by society, which leads to a closed discussion climate that penalizes the development progress of Swedish farmers. LRF has a support program named “Bonde kompis” which includes consulting services that many agricultural advisors claim provides support to the failed business owner. Many of the stakeholders we interviewed would like to offer more support in the future but suggest that government and authorities should contribute by reducing the pressure on agricultural entrepreneurs
    • 

    corecore