513 research outputs found

    Considering the Importance of User Profiles in Interface Design

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    User profile is a popular term widely employed during product design processes by industrial companies. Such a profile is normally intended to represent real users of a product. The ultimate purpose of a user profile is actually to help designers to recognize or learn about the real user by presenting them with a description of a real user’s attributes, for instance; the user’s gender, age, educational level, attitude, technical needs and skill level. The aim of this chapter is to provide information on the current knowledge and research about user profile issues, as well as to emphasize the importance of considering these issues in interface design. In this chapter, we mainly focus on how users’ difference in expertise affects their performance or activity in various interaction contexts. Considering the complex interaction situations in practice, novice and expert users’ interactions with medical user interfaces of different technical complexity will be analyzed as examples: one focuses on novice and expert users’ difference when interacting with simple medical interfaces, and the other focuses on differences when interacting with complex medical interfaces. Four issues will be analyzed and discussed: (1) how novice and expert users differ in terms of performance during the interaction; (2) how novice and expert users differ in the perspective of cognitive mental models during the interaction; (3) how novice and expert users should be defined in practice; and (4) what are the main differences between novice and expert users’ implications for interface design. Besides describing the effect of users’ expertise difference during the interface design process, we will also pinpoint some potential problems for the research on interface design, as well as some future challenges that academic researchers and industrial engineers should face in practice

    Appropriation of an Activity-based Flexible Office in daily work

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    In recent years, there has been growing interest in collaborative consumption of office environments and thereby implementation of Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs). Relocating to an A-FO introduces a desk-sharing policy as well as a multitude of new workspaces with different speech policies into the employee’s work context. This paper describes how employees appropriate desk-sharing and speech policies in an A-FO. The data were collected over a period of 6 months in a case organization by means of 18 shadowing sessions. The different ways in which employees appropriated the A-FO solution were (i) adopting, experimenting with, or rejecting the desk-sharing policy, and (ii) modes of interaction arising from spatial configuration and redefining speech policies. The discussion outlines the reasons behind appropriation or nonappropriation of the desk-sharing and emergent speech policies. The insights from this study provide support for organizations considering A-FOs to develop strategies for facilitating individuals’ work in these settings

    Parkbryggan : a design of a park in Southern Ulleråker

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    Uppsala är en stad som växer och förtätas i snabb takt. Den höga exploateringen ger en ökad procent hårdgjord yta och färre grönområden. Detta leder till en större andel dagvatten som måste omhändertagas, då den naturliga infiltrationen minskar. En god tillgång av natur och rekreation är viktigt för människors välbefinnande. När andelen grönområden minskar ställs det högre krav på de som återstår, för att uppfylla både sociala, ekologiska och estetiska värden. I detta arbete har ett gestaltningsförslag tagits fram av ett parkstråk i södra Ulleråker; ett planerat område i Uppsala med hög exploateringsgrad. Fokus i gestaltningen har varit att skapa ett parkstråk med en integrerad dagvattenhantering som samtidigt innehåller ytor för vistelse och fungerar som en spridningsväg för hotade arter i området. Den största utmaningen i gestaltningsarbetet har varit att rymma dessa funktioner på en begränsad yta. Arbetet är framtaget med trivalent design som hjälpmedel, där en balans mellan sociala, ekologiska och estetiska värden som utgångspunkt. Genom en tolkning av trivalent design formulerades frågor som använts under hela arbetet för att säkerställa att alla tre värden återfinns i gestaltningen. Gestaltningsförslagets utformning bygger på ett koncept som består av tre delar; stark identitet, grön länk och möten. Där stark identitet syftar till att skapa ett sammanhängande stråk med en tydlig orienterbarhet, uppnås detta genom att låta Cinnoberbaggens röda färg återkomma på möbler och utrustning längs hela stråket. Parkstråket ska även fungera som en grön länk mellan naturområdena i öster och väster. Genom att bevara och plantera ny vegetation knutet till hotade arter i området möjliggörs en spridningsväg. Möten står för mötet mellan natur och stad där parkstråket ska fungera som en brygga mellan dem. Det syftar även till att främja möten mellan människor genom att möjliggöra för spontan vistelse och aktivitet.Uppsala is a city that rapidly grows and densifies. The high exploitation results in a decreased percentage of green areas that can infiltrate water. This leads to a larger amount of stormwater to manage. A good access to nature and recreation is important for people's wellbeing. When the green spaces decreases, it require higher demands on those who remain to fulfill both; social, ecological and aesthetic values. This master thesis is presenting a design proposal of a park in southern Ulleråker; an area in Uppsala planned to be densified. The focus of the design has been to create a park with integrated stormwater management, that contains areas for social activity and that serves as an ecological pathway for endangered species in the local area. The biggest challenge in the design has been to merge these aspects together in to a limited area. Trivalent design was used as a tool to develop this master thesis, where a balance between social, ecological and aesthetic values is important. Through an interpretation of trivalent design, questions were formulated to ensure that all three values can be found in the design. The design of the proposal is based on a concept consisting three parts; strong identity, green link and meeting points. Where strong identity aims to create a coherent path with clear orientation. This is achieved by letting furniture and equipment have a red color, inspired by the Cinnoberbagge, an endangered beetle which can be found in the Ulleråkers area. The park will also serve as an ecological corridor between the green areas in east and west. This is accomplished by preserving and planting new vegetation linked to threatened species in the area. Meeting points represent the meeting between nature and the city where the park will function as a bridge between them. It also aims to encourage spontaneous social activity between people

    Mobbning : ur årskurs nio elevers och lärarstudenters perspektiv

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    The purpose of our essay was to illustrate how pupils in a medium-sized Swedish town in the 9th grade apprehend and explain bullying. We wanted to compare the pupils' opinions with student teachers' in college. Our questions were: How do the participants in the study define bullying? What are the characteristics of the bully and the victim of the bullying? Where, when and how does the bullying take place? What is the reason for the bullying? Are there any gender-related aspects of bullying? What is the participants? view of the teachers? role? Are there any differences between the pupils' and the teacher students' opinions about bullying, and in that case; what are the differences? We used a qualitative method by interviewing groups of pupils and teacher students. Our survey showed that the pupils' and the teacher students' opinions about bullying were similar in most cases. Bullying is when a pupil is exposed to negative actions several times. The participants thought that the bully generally can be anyone, but the bullies were often described as insecure persons. Most of the participants thought that the victim of the bullying can be anyone. The victims were often described as shy persons with low self-confidence

    Ekonomiska och miljömässiga konsekvenser, möjligheter och förutsättningar vid virkestransport på vägar med bärighetsklass 4 jämfört med bärighetsklass 1

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    För drygt 700 år sedan påbörjades arbetet med virkestransporter i Sverige, då för att försörja gruvor och stålindustrier. Sedan dess och förmodligen en lång tid framåt kommer virkestransporter att utgöra en vital del av samhällsstrukturen i Sverige. De dåtida transporterna skedde fram till mitten av 1900-talet i princip endast på rinnande vatten, så kallad flottning. Men lastbilarna och tågen utvecklades snabbt och tog marknadsandelar av flottningen i högt tempo. Att vi nu enbart transporterar rundvirket till industrierna med lastbilar innebär inte att de, eller vägnätet, är färdigutvecklade. Senast 2018 började man upplåta delar av det svenska vägnätet för större timmerbilar med en totalvikt på 74 ton jämfört med tidigare begränsning på 64 ton. I denna studie har skillnaderna i lönsamhet och miljöpåverkan jämförts mellan BK4-ekipage (lastbil tyngre än 64 ton) kör med full vikt eller med en bruttovikt om 64 ton. Detta genom att studera insamlad statistik från det transportledande företaget Westan. Datainformationen är från år 2022 och innehåller bland annat dieselförbrukning, lastvikt och körsträcka. Utöver databearbetningen genomfördes en studie av befintlig litteratur som behandlar ämnet och intervjuer med åkare som kör för Westan. Utifrån datan kan det inte statistiskt bevisas att en BK4-bil som har mer än 50 procent körningar på BK4-väg är mer bränsleeffektivt än om samma bil har färre än 50 procent BK4-körningar. Det förekommer även ett stort antal variabler och felkällor som påverkar resultaten, exempel på dessa är förarens yrkesskicklighet, geografins topografi och skillnader i lastbilarnas utförande.In the 14th Century the first timber transportation took place in Sweden in order to provide for mines and the steel industry. Since then and probably a long time in the future timber transportation will continue to be a vital part of the whole Swedish society. The first method of transport was floating in the rivers and in other watercourses. Floating was mainly used until the mid-20th century when trains and trucks started to develop at a rapid pace. Today, trucks are mainly used in timber transport from the forest to the industries. They have not been perfected. In 2018 a process of allowing heavier trucks (74 tons compared to 64 tons) on selected parts of the Swedish road network. In this study the difference in profitability and environmental impact between a heavy truck with full load or a heavy truck driving with 64 tones has been investigated. The data was collected by Westan, a transport leading company. The data is from the year 2022 and contains among other things fuel consumption, load weight and mileage. Besides from data processing a study of existing literature about the subject was carried out and interviews with truck owners whom have a contract with Westan. Based on the data material it could not be statistically proven that a BK4 carriage is more fuel efficient than a BK1 carriage. There are also a great number of variables and error sources that effects the results. Example on these are the drivers professional skill, the topography in the geography and difference in the design of the trucks

    Maahanmuuttajien koulutus- ja työllistymispolut Ruotsissa : Kolmen toimenpiteen kartoitus

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    Maahanmuuttajien koulutus- ja ty√∂llistymispolut Ruotsissa ‚Äď raportti k√§sittelee kolmea toimenpidett√§, joilla on pyritty parantamaan maahanmuuttajille tarjottavia koulutus- ja ty√∂llistymispalveluita. Aineisto ker√§ttiin osana Maahanmuuttajien koulutus- ja ty√∂llistymispolut (MAKO) -hanketta ja se julkaistaan erillisen√§ osaraporttina. T√§ss√§ esitelt√§vi√§ esimerkkej√§ k√§sitell√§√§n my√∂s itse hankkeen loppuraportin osana. Ruotsista ker√§tyn aineiston rooli hankkeessa oli tuottaa aineistoa tutkimuskysymyksiin, jotka k√§sitteliv√§t 1. koulutus- ja ty√∂llistymispolkujen pullonkauloja; 2. eri toimijoiden v√§lisen yhteisty√∂n j√§rjest√§mist√§, 3. kotoutumiskoulutuksen ja muiden ty√∂hallinnon palveluiden yhteensovittamista, sek√§ 4. palvelupolkujen kehitt√§mis- ja systematisointitarpeita. K√§sitelt√§vi√§ ohjelmia ovat Etableringsprogrammet, joka raportissa on k√§√§nnetty termill√§ asettautumisohjelma, Snabbsp√•r eli pikareitti sek√§ vireill√§ oleva uudistus Etableringsjobb, jossa valtio tukisi suoraan henkil√∂lle maksettavalla palkkatuella n√§iden ty√∂llist√§mist√§. Toimenpiteiss√§ yhteisty√∂ss√§ toimivat esimerkiksi Ruotsin ty√∂voimapalvelut, sosiaaliturvalaitos, kunnat, ty√∂markkinaosapuolet ja ty√∂nantajat. Toimenpiteet ovat olleet osin onnistuneita, mutta kehitett√§v√§√§ on l√∂ydetty edelleen esimerkiksi tiedonkulun vahvistamisen ja kielikoulutuksen j√§rjest√§misen kysymyksiss√§

    Pathways for Low-Carbon Transition of the Steel Industry-A Swedish Case Study

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    The concept of techno-economic pathways is used to investigate the potential implementation of CO(2)abatement measures over time towards zero-emission steelmaking in Sweden. The following mitigation measures are investigated and combined in three pathways: top gas recycling blast furnace (TGRBF); carbon capture and storage (CCS); substitution of pulverized coal injection (PCI) with biomass; hydrogen direct reduction of iron ore (H-DR); and electric arc furnace (EAF), where fossil fuels are replaced with biomass. The results show that CCS in combination with biomass substitution in the blast furnace and a replacement primary steel production plant with EAF with biomass (Pathway 1) yield CO(2)emission reductions of 83% in 2045 compared to CO(2)emissions with current steel process configurations. Electrification of the primary steel production in terms of H-DR/EAF process (Pathway 2), could result in almost fossil-free steel production, and Sweden could achieve a 10% reduction in total CO(2)emissions. Finally, (Pathway 3) we show that increased production of hot briquetted iron pellets (HBI), could lead to decarbonization of the steel industry outside Sweden, assuming that the exported HBI will be converted via EAF and the receiving country has a decarbonized power sector

    Roadmap for Decarbonization of the Building and Construction Industry - A Supply Chain Analysis Including Primary Production of Steel and Cement

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    Sweden has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to net-zero by 2045. Around 20% of Sweden\u27s annual CO(2)emissions arise from manufacturing, transporting, and processing of construction materials for construction and refurbishment of buildings and infrastructure. In this study, material and energy flows for building and transport infrastructure construction is outlined, together with a roadmap detailing how the flows change depending on different technical and strategical choices. By matching short-term and long-term goals with specific technology solutions, these pathways make it possible to identify key decision points and potential synergies, competing goals, and lock-in effects. The results show that it is possible to reduce CO(2)emissions associated with construction of buildings and transport infrastructure by 50% to 2030 applying already available measures, and reach close to zero emissions by 2045, while indicating that strategic choices with respect to process technologies and energy carriers may have different implications on energy use and CO(2)emissions over time. The results also illustrate the importance of intensifying efforts to identify and manage both soft and hard barriers and the importance of simultaneously acting now by implementing available measures (e.g., material efficiency and material/fuel substitution measures), while actively planning for long-term measures (low-CO(2)steel or cement)

    Appropriation of an Activity-based Flexible Office in daily work

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    In recent years, there has been growing interest in collaborative consumption of office environments and thereby implementation of Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs). Relocating to an A-FO introduces a desk-sharing policy as well as a multitude of new workspaces with different speech policies into the employee’s work context. This paper describes how employees appropriate desk-sharing and speech policies in an A-FO. The data were collected over a period of 6 months in a case organization by means of 18 shadowing sessions. The different ways in which employees appropriated the A-FO solution were (i) adopting, experimenting with, or rejecting the desk-sharing policy, and (ii) modes of interaction arising from spatial configuration and redefining speech policies. The discussion outlines the reasons behind appropriation or nonappropriation of the desk-sharing and emergent speech policies. The insights from this study provide support for organizations considering A-FOs to develop strategies for facilitating individuals’ work in these settings
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