115 research outputs found

    Responsive Legal Protection Against Child Abduction: A Human Rights Perspective

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    More child abductions have caused residents in major cities to be anxious, as can be seen from the concerns of almost all citizens. Hence, given the urgency of their development, it requires special care in order to grow and develop both physically mentally and spiritually. This research was an empiric legal research and it was conducted in Makassar and Jakarta, Indonesia. The results show that the principle of legal protection against children about non-discrimination, the best interests of children, the right to survival and development and the appreciation of children’ opinion has been set forth in Child Protection Law. In reality, however, the number of child abductions is still frequent; the act is very detrimental to the child in this case the child as a victim of a crime. The principle of child protection needs to be done as early as possible, i.e since from the fetus until the child is 18 years old. In conducting the development and protection for children, it is necessary for the role of the community through the institutions of child protection, religious institutions, non-government organizations, social organizations, business, mass-media and educational institutions. The complexity of the issue of child protection is very broad, and it cannot be simplified on one issue only. Above all, it is important to extend legal coverage and insight into the importance to understanding the principles of legal protection for children. Keywords: Child Abduction; Human Rights; Legal Protectio

    Pre-hospital management protocols and perceived difficulty in diagnosing acute heart failure

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    Aim To illustrate the pre-hospital management arsenals and protocols in different EMS units, and to estimate the perceived difficulty of diagnosing suspected acute heart failure (AHF) compared with other common pre-hospital conditions. Methods and results A multinational survey included 104 emergency medical service (EMS) regions from 18 countries. Diagnostic and therapeutic arsenals related to AHF management were reported for each type of EMS unit. The prevalence and contents of management protocols for common medical conditions treated pre-hospitally was collected. The perceived difficulty of diagnosing AHF and other medical conditions by emergency medical dispatchers and EMS personnel was interrogated. Ultrasound devices and point-of-care testing were available in advanced life support and helicopter EMS units in fewer than 25% of EMS regions. AHF protocols were present in 80.8% of regions. Protocols for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, chest pain, and dyspnoea were present in 95.2, 80.8, and 76.0% of EMS regions, respectively. Protocolized diagnostic actions for AHF management included 12-lead electrocardiogram (92.1% of regions), ultrasound examination (16.0%), and point-of-care testings for troponin and BNP (6.0 and 3.5%). Therapeutic actions included supplementary oxygen (93.2%), non-invasive ventilation (80.7%), intravenous furosemide, opiates, nitroglycerine (69.0, 68.6, and 57.0%), and intubation 71.5%. Diagnosing suspected AHF was considered easy to moderate by EMS personnel and moderate to difficult by emergency medical dispatchers (without significant differences between de novo and decompensated heart failure). In both settings, diagnosis of suspected AHF was considered easier than pulmonary embolism and more difficult than ST-elevation myocardial infarction, asthma, and stroke. Conclusions The prevalence of AHF protocols is rather high but the contents seem to vary. Difficulty of diagnosing suspected AHF seems to be moderate compared with other pre-hospital conditions

    The humanistic roots of Islamic administration and leadership for education : philosophical foundations for cross-cultural and transcultural teaching

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    For a number of decades, a humanistic approach has been a minor but persistent one in the Western field of administrative and leadership studies, and only recently has been broadening to include other humanist traditions (Dierksmeier et al., 2011) and has yet to be fully explored in educational administration and its pedagogy and curriculum although some foundational work has been done (e.g., Samier, 2005). The focus in this chapter is on the Islamic humanist tradition as it relates to the teaching of educational administration and leadership in a Muslim context, with implications for cross-cultural and transcultural use. The second purpose of the chapter is to show the correspondences that exist between the Islamic and Western humanist traditions in terms of human values, knowledge and educational ideal, which in this chapter are argued to be close to the Western Idealist tradition and the German Bildung conception of education as well as the strong interpretive and hermeneutic foundations that originated in the Islamic tradition and which influenced the foundations of many relevant European schools of thought, particularly in the Enlightenment.The initial section of the chapter is a comparative examination of the central principles of the Islamic humanist tradition from the classical through to contemporary times with the Western humanist tradition as they relate to conceptions of the good, ethics, the construction of meaning and a set of higher order values predicated upon human dignity, integrity, empathy, well-being, and the public good (Goodman, 2003) covering a number of important scholars like Al Farabi, al Isfanhani, and Edward Said (e.g., Kraemer, 1986). In both, professions are viewed as meaningful work that allow for large measures of decision making, and are grounded in human qualities and needs including autonomy, freedom and emancipation balanced with responsibilities, obligations and duties to society. These are compared with the corresponding principles of knowledge in Western humanism which includes a strong constructivist view of reality (Makdisi, 1990). Secondly, the chapter examines the principles of good or ideal leadership and administration that humanism aims at in its preparation of officials, including those in the educational sector in both the classical Islamic tradition (Hassi, 2012) and Western approaches to humanistic administration and leadership (Czarniawska-Joerges & Guillet de Monthoux, 1994; Gagliardi & Czarniawska, 2006; Leoussi, 2000). The third section focusses on close correspondences that exist between the Islamic (Afsaruddin, 2016; al-Attas, 1980; Yasin & Jani, 2013) and Western (Aloni, 2007; Veugelers, 2011) humanist education traditions in terms of educational ideal as well as the kind of teaching practices that distinguish these traditions (Daiber, 2013; Dossett, 2014) as they apply to educational administration and leadership (Greenfield & Ribbins, 1993). The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the Islamic humanist tradition can contribute to cross-cultural and transcultural graduate teaching in international educational administration (Khan & Amann, 2013)

    First measurement of the Q^2 distribution of X(3915) single-tag two-photon production

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    We report the first measurement of the Q2Q^2 distribution of X(3915)X(3915) produced by single-tag two-photon interactions. The decay mode used is X(3915)J/ψωX(3915) \rightarrow J/\psi\omega. The covered Q2Q^2 region is from 1.5 (GeV/cc)2^2 to 10.0 (GeV/cc)2^2. The observed number of events is 7.9±3.1(stat.)±1.5(syst.)7.9\pm 3.1({\rm stat.})\pm 1.5({\rm syst.}), in comparison to the expectation of 4.1±0.74.1\pm 0.7 derived from the standard value at Q2=0Q^2=0 measured in the no-tag two-photon process and extrapolated to the higher Q2Q^2 region using a ccˉc\bar{c} model. The measured Q2Q^2 distribution does not show a significant shift to lower Q2Q^2 in contrast to the expectation from some types of non-ccˉc\bar{c} models. It agrees with X(3915)X(3915) being a charmonium state, though it does not exclude a non-ccˉc\bar{c} state with compact size or large compact components.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figures, 3 table

    First measurement of the B+π+π0π0B^{+}\to\pi^{+}\pi^{0}\pi^{0} branching fraction and \textit{CP} asymmetry

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    We study B+π+π0π0B^{+}\to \pi^{+}\pi^{0}\pi^{0} using 711 fb1\rm{fb}^{-1} of data collected at the Υ(4S)\Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+ee^{+}e^{-} collider. We measure the inclusive branching fraction to be (19.0±1.5±1.4)×106(19.0\pm 1.5\pm 1.4)\times 10^{-6} and inclusive \textit{CP} asymmetry to be (9.2±6.8±0.7)%(9.2 \pm 6.8 \pm 0.7)\%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic; and the B+ρ(770)+π0B^{+}\to \rho(770)^{+}\pi^{0} branching fraction to be (11.2±1.1±0.91.6+0.8)×106(11.2\pm 1.1\pm 0.9 ^{+0.8}_{-1.6})\times 10^{-6}, where the third uncertainty is due to possible interference with B+ρ(1450)+π0B^{+}\to \rho(1450)^{+}\pi^{0}. We present the first observation of a structure around 1 GeV/c2c^{2} in the π0π0\pi^{0}\pi^{0} mass spectrum, which has a significance of 9.2σ\sigma, and measure the branching fraction of this structure to be (6.9±0.9±0.6)×106(6.9\pm 0.9\pm 0.6)\times 10^{-6}. We also report evidence for local \textit{CP} asymmetry in this π0π0\pi^{0}\pi^{0} structure.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figure

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Elective Cancer Surgery in COVID-19-Free Surgical Pathways During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: An International, Multicenter, Comparative Cohort Study.