35,334 research outputs found

### Small-amplitude perturbations of shape for a nearly spherical bubble in an inviscid straining flow (steady shapes and oscillatory motion)

The method of domain perturbations is used to study the problem of a nearly spherical bubble in an inviscid, axisymmetric straining flow. Steady-state shapes and axisymmetric oscillatory motions are considered. The steady-state solutions suggest the existence of a limit point at a critical Weber number, beyond which no solution exists on the steady-state solution branch which includes the spherical equilibrium state in the absence of flow (e.g. the critical value of 1.73 is estimated from the third-order solution). In addition, the first-order steady-state shape exhibits a maximum radius at θ = 1/6π which clearly indicates the barrel-like shape that was found earlier via numerical finite-deformation theories for higher Weber numbers. The oscillatory motion of a nearly spherical bubble is considered in two different ways. First, a small perturbation to a spherical base state is studied with the ad hoc assumption that the steady-state shape is spherical for the complete Weber-number range of interest. This analysis shows that the frequency of oscillation decreases as Weber number increases, and that a spherical bubble shape is unstable if Weber number is larger than 4.62. Secondly, the correct steady-state shape up to O(W) is included to obtain a rigorous asymptotic formula for the frequency change at small Weber number. This asymptotic analysis also shows that the frequency decreases as Weber number increases; for example, in the case of the principal mode (n = 2), ω^2 = ω_0^0(1−0.31W), where ω_0 is the oscillation frequency of a bubble in a quiescent fluid

### Bubble dynamics in time-periodic straining flows

The dynamics and breakup of a bubble in an axisymmetric, time-periodic straining flow has been investigated via analysis of an approximate dynamic model and also by time-dependent numerical solutions of the full fluid mechanics problem. The analyses reveal that in the neighbourhood of a stable steady solution, an O(ϵ1/3) time-dependent change of bubble shape can be obtained from an O(ε) resonant forcing. Furthermore, the probability of bubble breakup at subcritical Weber numbers can be maximized by choosing an optimal forcing frequency for a fixed forcing amplitude

### Extracting information from short messages

Much currently transmitted information takes the form of e-mails or SMS text messages and so extracting information from such short messages is increasingly important. The words in a message can be partitioned into the syntactic structure, terms from the domain of discourse and the data being transmitted. This paper describes a light-weight Information Extraction component which uses pattern matching to separate the three aspects: the structure is supplied as a template; domain terms are the metadata of a data source (or their synonyms), and data is extracted as those words matching placeholders in the templates

### Neutrino masses along with fermion mass hierarchy

Recently a new mechanism has been proposed to cure the problem of fermion
mass hierarchy in the Standard Model (SM) model. In this scenario, all SM
charged fermions other than top quark arise from higher dimensional operators
involving the SM Higgs field. This model also predicted some interesting
phenomenology of the Higgs boson. We generalize this model to accommodate
neutrino masses (Dirac & Majorana) and also obtain the mixing pattern in the
leptonic sector. To generate neutrino masses, we add extra three right handed
neutrinos $(N_{iR})$ in this model.Comment: 20 pages, the content on results and phenomenology have been
expanded, a new section on UV completion of the model has been added and also
some new references, this version has been accepted by Physical Review

### Temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent resistivity of MgB2 sintered at high temperature and high pressure condition

We report the temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent resistivity of MgB2
sintered at high temperature and high pressure condition. The superconducting
transition width for the resistivity measurement was about 0.4 K, and the
low-field magnetization showed a sharp superconducting transition with a
transition width of about 1 K. The resistivity in the normal state roughly
followed T^2 behavior with smaller residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of 3 over
broad temperature region above 100 K rather than reported T^3 behavior with
larger RRR value of ~ 20 in the samples made at lower pressures. Also, the
resistivity did not change appreciably with the applied magnetic field, which
was different from previous report. These differences were discussed with the
microscopic and structural change due to the high-pressure sintering.Comment: 2 pages, 3 figures. Accepted by Physica

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