11 research outputs found

    DRAWING THE PROFILE OF EFFICIENT FOOD INDUSTRIES-VERTICAL INTEGRATION, ECONOMIES OF SCALE, AND LOCATION ADVANTAGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCTS: A CASE STUDY FROM THE GREEK FOOD INDUSTRY

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    A stochastic frontier production function that incorporates a model for technical inefficiency effects is used to investigate the industrial production of Greek food industries. Panel data comes from 29 Greek firms in 1988 through 1992. Parameters considered in the model for inefficiency effects include the degree of vertical integration, capital intensity, location, and time. A translog stochastic frontier function is estimated simultaneously with those variables in the model for inefficiency effects. The results indicate that technical efficiency among the firms ranges from 42 percent to 99 percent. More efficient firms are those with a higher degree of vertical integration that are located in rural areas and have sufficient investment in human capital to exploit the economies of scale obtained through investment in fixed capital. Most firms improve their performance over time, reducing the efficiency gap.Agribusiness,

    Spatial Econometrics Revisited: A Case Study of Land Values in Roanoke County

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    Omitting spatial characteristics such as proximity to amenities from hedonic land value models may lead to spatial autocorrelation and biased and inefficient estimators. A spatial autoregressive error model can be used to model the spatial structure of errors arising from omitted spatial effects. This paper demonstrates an alternative approach to modeling land values based on individual and joint misspecification tests using data from Roanoke County in Virginia. Spatial autocorrelation is found in land value models of Roanoke County. Defining neighborhoods based on geographic and socioeconomics characteristics produces better estimates of neighborhood effects on land values than simple distance measures. Implementing a comprehensive set of individual and joint misspecification tests results in better correction for misspecification errors compared to existing practices.Land Economics/Use,

    Residential Land Values in Urbanizing Areas

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    Zoning decisions related to residential lot size and density affect residential land value. Effects of size on residential parcel value in Roanoke County, VA, are estimated with fixed effects hedonic models. Parcel size; elevation; soil permeability; proximity to urban areas, malls, and roads; and location influence parcel value, but the effects vary by value of construction and development status. Parcel value per square meter declines with increasing parcel size. The estimated relationships could be used to evaluate zoning decisions in terms of land values and tax revenues if model estimation uncertainties and responses by developers to zoning strategies are considered.development, fixed effects, hedonic model, property values, residential density, spatial econometrics, Agribusiness, Land Economics/Use, Q24, C25, C52,

    Co-existence of a giant splenic hemangioma and multiple hepatic hemangiomas and the potential association with the use of oral contraceptives: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Hepatic and splenic hemangiomas are common benign tumors that mainly affect female patients. Giant splenic hemangiomas are extremely rare, especially when correlated with multiple hepatic hemangiomas. Pathogenetic mechanisms between hemangiomas and oral contraceptives, as well as therapeutic approaches, are analyzed in this case report, in particular for the management of synchronous splenic and hepatic hemangiomas.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>We report here a 42-year-old woman with a giant splenic hemangioma, multiple hepatic hemangiomas and a history of oral estrogen intake for many years. At first it was difficult to determine the organ from which the giant hemangioma originated. Angiography proved extremely helpful in tracing its origin in the spleen. Hematomas in the giant hemangioma posed a significant threat of rupture and catastrophic hemorrhage. We left the small hepatic hemangiomas in place, and removed the spleen along with the giant splenic hemangioma.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Diagnostic pitfalls in the determination of the origin of this giant hemangioma, attribution of its origin to the spleen angiographically, the unusual co-existence of the giant splenic hemangioma with multiple hepatic ones, and the potential threat of rupture of the giant hemangioma are some of the highlights of this case report. Estrogen administration represents a pathogenic factor that has been associated with hemangiomas in solid organs of the abdominal cavity. The therapeutic dilemma between resection and embolization of giant hemangiomas is another point of discussion in this case report. Splenectomy for the giant splenic hemangioma eliminates the risk of rupture and malignant degeneration, whereas observation for the small hepatic ones (<4 cm) was the preferable therapeutic strategy in our patient.</p

    Mirizzi syndrome type IV associated with cholecystocolic fistula: a very rare condition- report of a case

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Mirizzi syndrome is a rare complication of prolonged cholelithiasis with presence of large, impacted gallstone into the Hartman's pouch, causing chronic extrinsic compression of common bile duct (CBD). Fistula formation between the CBD and the gallbladder may represent an outcome of that condition. According to Mirizzi's classification and Csendes's subclassification, Mirizzi syndrome type IV represents the most uncommon type (4%).</p> <p>Spontaneous biliary-enteric fistulas have also been rarely reported (1.2–5%) in a large series of cholecystectomies. Cholecystocolic fistula is the most infrequent biliary enteric fistula, causing significant morbidity and representing a diagnostic challenge.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>We describe a very rare, to our knowledge, combination of Mirizzi syndrome type IV and cholecystocolic fistula. A 52 year old male, presented to our clinic complaining of episodic diarrhea (monthly episodes lasting 16 days), high temperature (38°C–39°C), right upper quadrant pain without jaundice. The definitive diagnosis was made intraoperatively. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated the presence of Mirizzi syndrome with cholecystocolic fistula formation. The patient was operated upon, and cholecystectomy, cholecystocolic fistula excision and Roux-en-Y biliary-enteric anastomosis were undertaken with excellent post-operative course.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Appropriate biliary tree imaging with ERCP and MRI/MRCP is essential for the diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome and its complications. Cholecystectomy, fistula excision and biliary-enteric anastomosis with Roux-en-Y loop appears to be the most appropriate surgical intervention in order to avoid damage to Calot's triangle anatomic elements. Particularly in our case, ERCP was a valuable diagnostic tool that Mirizzi syndrome type IV and cholecystocolic fistula.</p

    Canagliflozin attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation process in APOE knockout mice

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    Background: Sodium glucose co-transporter2 inhibitors reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the results of recent cardiovascular outcome studies. Herein, we investigated the efects of long-term treatment with canaglifozin on biochemical and immunohistochemical markers related to atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis development in the aorta of apolipoprotein E knockout (Apo-E(−/−) ) mice. Methods: At the age of 5 weeks, mice were switched from normal to a high-fat diet. After 5 weeks, Apo-E(−/−) mice were divided into control-group (6 mice) treated with 0.5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Cana-group (7 mice) treated with canaglifozin (10 mg/kg per day) per os. After 5 weeks of intervention, animals were sacrifced, and heart and aorta were removed. Sections stained with hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) were used for histomorphometry whereas Masson’s stained tissues were used to quantify the collagen content. Immunohistochemistry to assess MCP-1, CD68, a-smooth muscle actin, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression was carried out and q-PCR experiments were performed to quantify mRNA expression. Results: Canaglifozin-group mice had lower total-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels (P<0.01), while heart rate was signifcantly lower (P<0.05). Histomorphometry revealed that one in seven Cana-group mice versus four in six control mice developed atheromatosis, while aortic root plaque was signifcantly less, and collagen was 1.6 times more intense in canaglifozin-group suggesting increased plaque stability. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MCP-1 was signifcantly less expressed (P<0.05) in the aortic root of canaglifozin-group while reduced expression of a-actin and CD68 was not reaching signifcance (P=0.15). VCAM-1 and MCP-1 mRNA levels were lower (P=0.02 and P=0.07, respectively), while TIMP-1/MMP-2 ratio expression was higher in canaglifozin-group approaching statistical signifcance (P=0.07). Conclusions: Canaglifozin attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis, reducing (1) hyperlipidemia and hyper‑ glycemia, and (2) infammatory process, by lowering the expression of infammatory molecules such as MCP-1 and VCAM-1. Moreover, canaglifozin was found to increase the atherosclerotic plaque stability via increasing TIMP-1/ MMP-2 ratio expression

    DRAWING THE PROFILE OF EFFICIENT FOOD INDUSTRIES-VERTICAL INTEGRATION, ECONOMIES OF SCALE, AND LOCATION ADVANTAGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCTS: A CASE STUDY FROM THE GREEK FOOD INDUSTRY

    No full text
    A stochastic frontier production function that incorporates a model for technical inefficiency effects is used to investigate the industrial production of Greek food industries. Panel data comes from 29 Greek firms in 1988 through 1992. Parameters considered in the model for inefficiency effects include the degree of vertical integration, capital intensity, location, and time. A translog stochastic frontier function is estimated simultaneously with those variables in the model for inefficiency effects. The results indicate that technical efficiency among the firms ranges from 42 percent to 99 percent. More efficient firms are those with a higher degree of vertical integration that are located in rural areas and have sufficient investment in human capital to exploit the economies of scale obtained through investment in fixed capital. Most firms improve their performance over time, reducing the efficiency gap

    Spatial Econometrics Revisited: A Case Study of Land Values in Roanoke County

    No full text
    Omitting spatial characteristics such as proximity to amenities from hedonic land value models may lead to spatial autocorrelation and biased and inefficient estimators. A spatial autoregressive error model can be used to model the spatial structure of errors arising from omitted spatial effects. This paper demonstrates an alternative approach to modeling land values based on individual and joint misspecification tests using data from Roanoke County in Virginia. Spatial autocorrelation is found in land value models of Roanoke County. Defining neighborhoods based on geographic and socioeconomics characteristics produces better estimates of neighborhood effects on land values than simple distance measures. Implementing a comprehensive set of individual and joint misspecification tests results in better correction for misspecification errors compared to existing practices

    Residential Land Values in Urbanizing Areas

    No full text
    Zoning decisions related to residential lot size and density affect residential land value. Effects of size on residential parcel value in Roanoke County, VA, are estimated with fixed effects hedonic models. Parcel size; elevation; soil permeability; proximity to urban areas, malls, and roads; and location influence parcel value, but the effects vary by value of construction and development status. Parcel value per square meter declines with increasing parcel size. The estimated relationships could be used to evaluate zoning decisions in terms of land values and tax revenues if model estimation uncertainties and responses by developers to zoning strategies are considered

    Paraneoplastic syndromes related to neuroendorine tumours

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    Low or high grade malignant neoplasms present syndromes secondary to symptoms related to local mass effects to surrounding structures or through the development of metastases. A significant number of neoplasms, irrespective of their endocrine differentiation, can present with clinical syndromes produced from the secretion of bioactive substances from tumoural cells, although this is more prevalent in neuroendocrine tumours. Occasionally syndromes related to the immune cross-reactivity of tumoural antigens with the normal tissues may also develop. These syndromes are named endocrine paraneoplastic when the specific secretory components (hormones, peptides or cytokines) are unrelated to the anticipated tissue or organ of origin. Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes can precede, occur concomitantly or present at a later stage of tumour development and may complicate the patient’s clinical course, response to treatment, and impact overall prognosis. Their detection can facilitate the diagnosis of the underlying neoplasia, monitor response to treatment, detect early recurrences and correlate with prognosis. Although when associated with tumours of low malignant potential they usually do not affect long-term outcome, in cases of highly malignant tumours, endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes are usually associated with poorer survival outcomes. Currently, no specific underlying pathogenic mechanism has been identified although a number of plausible hypotheses have been put forward. However, advances in the localization and treatment of these syndromes have evolved and aim at early identification particularly as the number of these syndromes is expected to rise. The development of well-designed prospective multicentre trials remains a priority in the field in order to fully characterise these syndromes and provide evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. For extended coverage of this and related topics, please see our FREE on-line web- text www.endotext.org
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