489 research outputs found

    AN ANNOTATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RESEARCH ON THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE

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    Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse" gases have the potential to substantially warm climates worldwide. While the timing and magnitude of global warming is uncertain, scientists on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predict that average global temperature may increase by 1.5- 4.5³C (2.7-8.1³F) over the next 100 years. Changes in precipitation will likely accompany any changes in temperature. However, the magnitude, and even direction of these changes is difficult to predict with much confidence on a regional basis. The agricultural sector may be profoundly affected by future changes in temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, and carbon dioxide concentrations. Over the past decade, there has been a growing body of research examining the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to report and summarize recent research on the potential economic impacts of global climate change on agriculture. To that end, an annotative bibliography of articles is presented in this paper.Environmental Economics and Policy,

    MARKET IMPACTS OF BOVINE SOMATROPIN: A SUPPLY AND DEMAND ANALYSIS

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    The potential economic impacts of the introduction of bovine somatotropin (bST) on U.S. milk supply and demand are analyzed using a national model of Class I and Class II milk markets. The results indicate that the introduction of bST will lead to lower milk prices, higher milk production, and larger government purchases of dairy products. Unlike previous economic analyses of bST, this analysis considers both supply and demand effects of bST. The implication is that studies that ignore potential demand-side effects may produce misleading results.Demand and Price Analysis,

    Estimating Asymmetric Advertising Response: An Application to U.S. Nonalcoholic Beverage Demand

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    We propose a regime-switching model that allows demand to respond asymmetrically to upward and downward advertising changes. With the introduction of a smooth transition function, the model features smooth rather than abrupt parameter changes between regimes. We apply the model to nonalcoholic beverage data in the United States for 1974 through 2005 to investigate asymmetric advertising response. Results indicate that a decrease in milk advertising had a more profound impact on milk demand than an increase did. An increase in milk advertising had no impact on milk demand, but a decrease could have an own-advertising elasticity up to 0.049.asymmetric advertising response, demand system, negative asymmetry, nonalcoholic beverage demand, positive asymmetry, regime switching, smooth transition function, Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, C32, M37, Q11,

    Advertising and U.S. Nonalcoholic Beverage Demand

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    As a first effort at modeling nonalcoholic beverage demand in a systemwide framework that includes bottled water, this article examines the impact of advertising on the demand for nonalcoholic beverages in the United States. We employed an AIDS (almost ideal demand system) model of five jointly estimated equations that included advertising expenditures as explanatory variables to evaluate annual U.S. consumption of nonalcoholic beverages for 1974 through 2005. Results suggest that advertising increases demand for fluid milk, soft drinks, and coffee and tea, but not for juice or bottled water. Advertising spillover effects occur in over 50 percent of the cases considered, and such effects can be substantial, particularly for advertising of soft drinks, and coffee and tea. We find that a large increase in the retail price of fluid milk, an increasing trend towards dining out, and positive spillover effects from soft drink advertising made significant contributions to bottled water’s success in recent years.advertising, demand, elasticity, nonalcoholic beverages, Demand and Price Analysis,

    Investigating Coupon Effects on Household Interpurchase Behavior for Cheese

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    In this study, a market segmentation approach is developed and applied to analyze U.S. household cheese purchases. The segmentation is based on household interpurchase time or the hazard rate of purchases. The hazard rate for a household belonging to a given segment is a function of household demographic and marketing-mix variables, and its baseline is assumed to follow a Weibull distribution. The model is flexible and is able to yield increasing, decreasing, or constant hazard rate functions. Four segments have been discovered in the U.S. household cheese purchase market. Two of the segments contain about 40% of the cheese purchase households, which are frequent buyers with an average interpurchase time of 2 weeks. These frequent cheese purchase households are larger in size, with higher income, less proportion of African Americans, and are insensitive to coupons. They are often referenced in the marketing literatures as loyal customers. In contrast, the other two segments contain about 60% of the households, which are infrequent buyers with an average interpurchase time of 6 weeks. These infrequent cheese purchase households are smaller in size, with lower income, higher proportion of African Americans, and are sensitive coupons. The infrequent purchase households are usually the targets of marketing promotions.Consumer/Household Economics,

    IMPERFECT COMPETITION MODELS AND COMMODITY PROMOTION EVALUATION: THE CASE OF U.S. GENERIC MILK ADVERTISING

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    This article examines whether the assumption of perfect competition in the U.S. dairy industry biases the findings of economic impacts of generic dairy advertising. An imperfect competition model based on an approach similar to that of Appelbaum is developed and used to evaluate generic milk advertising. The results are compared with a perfect competition model. The findings indicate positive price and quantity impacts due to generic advertising. The differences in magnitude of impacts between the two models are small, suggesting that the assumption of perfect competition for U.S. dairy models is plausible.Evaluation, Generic milk advertising, Imperfect competition model, Marketing,

    DISCRETE STOCHASTIC SEQUENTIAL PROGRAMMING: A PRIMER

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    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of discrete stochastic sequential programming and to illustrate the technique through a numerical example. The application of the technique to empirical problems involving decision making will be briefly discussed and an empirical application will be summarized.Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,

    EGG ADVERTISING, DIETARY CHOLESTEROL CONCERNS, AND U.S. CONSUMER DEMAND

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    A model of the domestic demand for eggs was estimated from quarterly data over the period 1987 through 1995, incorporating an index of consumer dietary cholesterol concerns and generic advertising efforts by the American Egg Board and the California Egg Commission. Empirical results indicated that most of the observed change in egg demand could be explained by dietary cholesterol concerns. Simulating the model in a constant elasticity supply framework demonstrated that advertising efforts over the past several years have resulted in net benefits to egg producers largely when considering inelastic supply responses. However, considering trade bias reduces these benefit-cost ratios substantially.Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis,
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