1,009 research outputs found

    Effect of different omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios on the formation of monohydroxylated fatty acids in THP-1 derived macrophages

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    Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA) can modulate inflammatory processes. In western diets, the content of n-6 PUFA is much higher than that of n-3 PUFA, which has been suggested to promote a pro-inflammatory phenotype. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of modulating the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on the formation of monohydroxylated fatty acid (HO-FAs) derived from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in THP-1 macrophages by means of LC-MS. Lipid metabolites were measured in THP-1 macrophage cell pellets. The concentration of AA-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) was not significantly changed when incubated THP-1 macrophages in a high AA/(EPA+DHA) ratio of 19/1 vs. a low ratio AA/(EPA+DHA) of 1/1 (950.6 +/- 110 ng/mg vs. 648.2 +/- 92.4 ng/mg, p = 0.103). Correspondingly, the concentration of EPA-derived hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs) and DHA-derived hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (HDHAs) were significantly increased (63.9 +/- 7.8 ng/mg vs. 434.4 +/- 84.3 ng/mg, p = 0.012 and 84.9 +/- 18.3 ng/mg vs. 439.4 +/- 82.7 ng/mg, p = 0.014, respectively). Most notable was the strong increase of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) formation in THP-1 macrophages, with levels of 170.9 +/- 40.2 ng/mg protein in the high n-3 PUFA treated cells. Thus our data indicate that THP-1 macrophages prominently utilize EPA and DHA for monohydroxylated metabolite formation, in particular 18-HEPE, which has been shown to be released by macrophages to prevent pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling

    Simulated-tempering approach to spin-glass simulations

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    After developing an appropriate iteration procedure for the determination of the parameters, the method of simulated tempering has been successfully applied to the 2D Ising spin glass. The reduction of the slowing down is comparable to that of the multicanonical algorithm. Simulated tempering has, however, the advantages to allow full vectorization of the programs and to provide the canonical ensemble directly.Comment: 12 pages (LaTeX), 4 postscript figures, uufiles encoded, submitted to Physical Review

    Pion photoproduction on the nucleon in the quark model

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    We present a detailed quark-model study of pion photoproduction within the effective Lagrangian approach. Cross sections and single-polarization observables are investigated for the four charge channels, γp→π+n\gamma p\to \pi^+ n, γn→π−p\gamma n\to \pi^- p, γp→π0p\gamma p\to \pi^0 p, and γn→π0n\gamma n\to \pi^0 n. Leaving the πNΔ\pi N\Delta coupling strength to be a free parameter, we obtain a reasonably consistent description of these four channels from threshold to the first resonance region. Within this effective Lagrangian approach, strongly constrainted by the quark model, we consider the issue of double-counting which may occur if additional {\it t}-channel contributions are included.Comment: Revtex, 35 pages, 16 eps figures; version to appear on PR

    Cluster Spin Glass Distribution Functions in La2−x_{2-x}Srx_xCuO4_4

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    Signatures of the cluster spin glass have been found in a variety of experiments, with an effective onset temperature TonT_{on} that is frequency dependent. We reanalyze the experimental results and find that they are characterized by a distribution of activation energies, with a nonzero glass transition temperature Tg(x)<TonT_g(x)<T_{on}. While the distribution of activation energies is the same, the distribution of weights depends on the process. Remarkably, the weights are essentially doping independent.Comment: 5 pages, 5 ps figure

    Low frequency response of a collectively pinned vortex manifold

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    A low frequency dynamic response of a vortex manifold in type-II superconductor can be associated with thermally activated tunneling of large portions of the manifold between pairs of metastable states (two-level systems). We suggest that statistical properties of these states can be verified by using the same approach for the analysis of thermal fluctuations the behaviour of which is well known. We find the form of the response for the general case of vortex manifold with non-dispersive elastic moduli and for the case of thin superconducting film for which the compressibility modulus is always non-local.Comment: 8 pages, no figures, ReVTeX, the final version. Text strongly modified, all the results unchange

    Superconducting Transition Temperature in Heterogeneous Ferromagnet-Superconductor Systems

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    We study the shift of the the superconducting transition temperature TcT_c in ferromagnetic-superconducting bi-layers and in a superconducting film supplied a square array of ferromagnetic dots. We find that the transition temperature in these two cases change presumably in opposite direction and that its change is not too small. We extend these results to multilayer structures. We predict that rather small external magnetic field ∼10\sim 10 Oe can change the transition temperature of the bilayer by 10% .Comment: 9 pages, 2 figure

    Quantum field theory of metallic spin glasses

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    We introduce an effective field theory for the vicinity of a zero temperature quantum transition between a metallic spin glass (``spin density glass'') and a metallic quantum paramagnet. Following a mean field analysis, we perform a perturbative renormalization-group study and find that the critical properties are dominated by static disorder-induced fluctuations, and that dynamic quantum-mechanical effects are dangerously irrelevant. A Gaussian fixed point is stable for a finite range of couplings for spatial dimensionality d>8d > 8, but disorder effects always lead to runaway flows to strong coupling for d≤8d \leq 8. Scaling hypotheses for a {\em static\/} strong-coupling critical field theory are proposed. The non-linear susceptibility has an anomalously weak singularity at such a critical point. Although motivated by a perturbative study of metallic spin glasses, the scaling hypotheses are more general, and could apply to other quantum spin glass to paramagnet transitions.Comment: 16 pages, REVTEX 3.0, 2 postscript figures; version contains reference to related work in cond-mat/950412
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