31,794 research outputs found

    Dynamics and neutrino signal of black hole formation in non-rotating failed supernovae. II. progenitor dependence

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    We study the progenitor dependence of the black hole formation and its associated neutrino signals from the gravitational collapse of non-rotating massive stars, following the preceding study on the single progenitor model in Sumiyoshi et al. (2007). We aim to clarify whether the dynamical evolution toward the black hole formation occurs in the same manner for different progenitors and to examine whether the characteristic of neutrino bursts is general having the short duration and the rapidly increasing average energies. We perform the numerical simulations by general relativistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics to follow the dynamical evolution from the collapse of pre-supernova models of 40Msun and 50Msun toward the black hole formation via contracting proto-neutron stars. For the three progenitor models studied in this paper, we found that the black hole formation occurs in ~0.4-1.5 s after core bounce through the increase of proto-neutron star mass together with the short and energetic neutrino burst. We found that density profile of progenitor is important to determine the accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star and, therefore, the duration of neutrino burst. We compare the neutrino bursts of black hole forming events from different progenitors and discuss whether we can probe clearly the progenitor and/or the dense matter.Comment: 30 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Dynamics and neutrino signal of black hole formation in non-rotating failed supernovae. I. EOS dependence

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    We study the black hole formation and the neutrino signal from the gravitational collapse of a non-rotating massive star of 40 Msun. Adopting two different sets of realistic equation of state (EOS) of dense matter, we perform the numerical simulations of general relativistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics under the spherical symmetry. We make comparisons of the core bounce, the shock propagation, the evolution of nascent proto-neutron star and the resulting re-collapse to black hole to reveal the influence of EOS. We also explore the influence of EOS on the neutrino emission during the evolution toward the black hole formation. We find that the speed of contraction of the nascent proto-neutron star, whose mass increases fast due to the intense accretion, is different depending on the EOS and the resulting profiles of density and temperature differ significantly. The black hole formation occurs at 0.6-1.3 sec after bounce when the proto-neutron star exceeds its maximum mass, which is crucially determined by the EOS. We find that the average energies of neutrinos increase after bounce because of rapid temperature increase, but at different speeds depending on the EOS. The duration of neutrino emission up to the black hole formation is found different according to the different timing of re-collapse. These characteristics of neutrino signatures are distinguishable from those for ordinary proto-neutron stars in successful core-collapse supernovae. We discuss that a future detection of neutrinos from black-hole-forming collapse will contribute to reveal the black hole formation and to constrain the EOS at high density and temperature.Comment: 32 pages, 33 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    R-Process Nucleosynthesis In Neutrino-Driven Winds From A Typical Neutron Star With M = 1.4 Msun

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    We study the effects of the outer boundary conditions in neutrino-driven winds on the r-process nucleosynthesis. We perform numerical simulations of hydrodynamics of neutrino-driven winds and nuclear reaction network calculations of the r-process. As an outer boundary condition of hydrodynamic calculations, we set a pressure upon the outermost layer of the wind, which is approaching toward the shock wall. Varying the boundary pressure, we obtain various asymptotic thermal temperature of expanding material in the neutrino-driven winds for resulting nucleosynthesis. We find that the asymptotic temperature slightly lower than those used in the previous studies of the neutrino-driven winds can lead to a successful r-process abundance pattern, which is in a reasonable agreement with the solar system r-process abundance pattern even for the typical proto-neutron star mass Mns ~ 1.4 Msun. A slightly lower asymptotic temperature reduces the charged particle reaction rates and the resulting amount of seed elements and lead to a high neutron-to-seed ratio for successful r-process. This is a new idea which is different from the previous models of neutrino-driven winds from very massive (Mns ~ 2.0 Msun) and compact (Rns ~ 10 km) neutron star to get a short expansion time and a high entropy for a successful r-process abundance pattern. Although such a large mass is sometimes criticized from observational facts on a neutron star mass, we dissolve this criticism by reconsidering the boundary condition of the wind. We also explore the relation between the boundary condition and neutron star mass, which is related to the progenitor mass, for successful r-process.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figure

    Monopole Excitation to Cluster States

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    We discuss strength of monopole excitation of the ground state to cluster states in light nuclei. We clarify that the monopole excitation to cluster states is in general strong as to be comparable with the single particle strength and shares an appreciable portion of the sum rule value in spite of large difference of the structure between the cluster state and the shell-model-like ground state. We argue that the essential reasons of the large strength are twofold. One is the fact that the clustering degree of freedom is possessed even by simple shell model wave functions. The detailed feature of this fact is described by the so-called Bayman-Bohr theorem which tells us that SU(3) shell model wave function is equivalent to cluster model wave function. The other is the ground state correlation induced by the activation of the cluster degrees of freedom described by the Bayman-Bohr theorem. We demonstrate, by deriving analytical expressions of monopole matrix elements, that the order of magnitude of the monopole strength is governed by the first reason, while the second reason plays a sufficient role in reproducing the data up to the factor of magnitude of the monopole strength. Our explanation is made by analysing three examples which are the monopole excitations to the 02+0^+_2 and 03+0^+_3 states in 16^{16}O and the one to the 02+0^+_2 state in 12^{12}C. The present results imply that the measurement of strong monopole transitions or excitations is in general very useful for the study of cluster states.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure: revised versio

    The Grounds For Time Dependent Market Potentials From Dealers' Dynamics

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    We apply the potential force estimation method to artificial time series of market price produced by a deterministic dealer model. We find that dealers' feedback of linear prediction of market price based on the latest mean price changes plays the central role in the market's potential force. When markets are dominated by dealers with positive feedback the resulting potential force is repulsive, while the effect of negative feedback enhances the attractive potential force.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, proceedings of APFA

    On the Genus Expansion in the Topological String Theory

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    A systematic formulation of the higher genus expansion in topological string theory is considered. We also develop a simple way of evaluating genus zero correlation functions. At higher genera we derive some interesting formulas for the free energy in the A1A_1 and A2A_2 models. We present some evidence that topological minimal models associated with Lie algebras other than the A-D-E type do not have a consistent higher genus expansion beyond genus one. We also present some new results on the CP1CP^1 model at higher genera.Comment: 36 pages, phyzzx, UTHEP-27

    Large magnetic field-induced spectral weight enhancement of high-energy spin excitations in La1.88Sr0.12CuO4La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_{4}

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    We report electronic Raman scattering experiments on a superconducting La1.88Sr0.12CuO4{\rm La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_{4}} single crystal in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the spectral weight of the high-energy two-magnon peak increases linearly with field and is amplified by a factor of more than two at 14 T. The effect disappears at elevated temperatures and is not present in undoped La2CuO4{\rm La_{2}CuO_{4}}. This observation is discussed in terms of an electronically inhomogeneous state in which the field enhances the volume fraction of a phase with local antiferromagnetic order at the expense of the superconducting phase.Comment: to appear in PR
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