108,652 research outputs found

    Party-system institutionalization and democracy: the case of Russia

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    Party-system institutionalization and its implications for democratic consolidation is an important sub-field in the study of political parties. The conventional view is that an institutionalized party system is better for democracy than an under-institutionalized one. This article considers the case of party-system institutionalization and democracy in Russia, and its implications for our understanding of the relationship between party-system institutionalization and democracy. The analysis finds, contrary to the expectations of the literature, that this relationship has been inverse in Russia i.e. as the party system has institutionalized democracy has declined. The Russian case shows that the link between party-system institutionalization and democracy does not necessarily hold and suggests that the conditions in which party-system institutionalization has democratizing effects need to be specified more precisely

    Comparative performance of double-focus and quadrupole mass spectrometers

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    Light-weight flight type double focus and quadruple mass spectrometer models were compared. Data cover size, weight, and power sensitivity required to achieve same resolution sensitivity at given mass number. Comparison was made using mathematical relationships. Analysis was confined to equal ion source area sensitivity variations not more than 40% over mass range

    Are Galaxies Optically Thin to Their Own Lyman Continuum Radiation? II. NGC 6822

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    Halpha and UBV photometry of NGC 6822 are used to study the distribution of OB stars and HII regions in the galaxy and to determine whether individual regions of the galaxy are in a state of ionization balance. Four distinct components of the Halpha emission (bright, halo, diffuse and field) differentiated by their surface brightnesses are identified. We find that approximately 1/2 of all OB stars in NGC 6822 are located in the field while only 1/4 are found in the combined bright and halo regions, suggesting that OB stars spend roughly 3/4 of their lifetimes outside ``classical'' H II regions. Comparing the observed Halpha emission with that predicted from stellar ionizing flux models, we find that although the bright, halo and diffuse regions are probably in ionization balance, the field region is producing at least 6 times as much ionizing flux as is observed. The ionization balance results in NGC 6822 suggest that star formation rates obtained from Halpha luminosities must underestimate the true star formation rate in this galaxy by about 50%. Comparing our results for NGC 6822 with previous results for the spiral galaxy M33, we find that the inner kiloparsec of M33 is in a more serious state of ionization imbalance, perhaps due to its higher surface density of blue stars.Comment: Replaced version should now compile with standard aastex style files. 28 pages, aastex preprint format. Accepted in ApJ. Hardcopies of figures available on request to [email protected]

    Women without a Voice: The Paradox of Silence in the Works of Sandra Cisneros, Shashi Deshpande and Azar Nafisi

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    Women of every culture face a similar problem: loss of voice. Their lives are permeated with silence. Whether their silence results from a patriarchal society that prohibits women from asserting their identity or from a social expectation of gender roles that confine women to an expressive domain-submissive, nurturing, passive, and domestic-rather than an instrumental role where men are dominant, affective and aggressive-women share the common bond of a debilitating silence. Maria Racine, in her analysis of Janie in Zora Neale Hurston\u27s Their Eyes Were Watching God, reaffirms the pervasiveness of this bond: For women, silence has crossed every racial and cultural boundary (283). Indeed, Elaine Mar, a Chinese-American writer, in her memoir, Paper Daughter, elucidates the implications of silence for women, Like Mother I was learning to disappear. Frequently, I sought refuge with her in the basement room, in the silence of empty spaces. But I was also learning to vanish in full sight of others, retreating into myself when physical flight wasn\u27t possible. My voice withered. Silent desire parched my throat (48). Silence and loss of voice debilitate and stifle women, as they are forced to sublimate their identity in order to survive in their worlds

    Faith and the Asylum Crisis: The role of religion in responding to displacement (Policy Paper)

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    This briefing paper is a distillation of the main points and recommendations that arose during two two-day workshops held in Washington DC in May 2014 and Brussels in June 2014. The workshops, funded by the British Council USA Bridging Voices program, assembled scholars, policymakers and practitioners focused on issues of asylum, refuge and protection in contemporary global politics and the current and potential future roles of faith and faith actors across the US and Europe

    Comparative performance of double focused and quadrupole mass spectrometers

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    Comparative performance analysis of double focused and quadrupole mass spectrometer

    LDEF archival system plan

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    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has provided the first significant opportunity to extensively study the space environment and its effects upon spacecraft systems and materials. The long-term value of the data obtained from LDEF, which is applicable to a wide range of areas including space environment definition, space environmental effects, and spacecraft design, will depend upon the system developed to archive and retrieve the data. Therefore, in addition to the large effort undertaken to analyze LDEF data, a substantial effort is also necessary in order to retain and disseminate LDEF resources for future research and design. W. J. Schafer Associates, Inc., has a task subcontract to develop the LDEF archival system. The LDEF resources include data, hardware, photographic records, and publications which cover the 20-year history of LDEF from concept design through data analysis. Chronologically, prelaunch resources include documentation of facility and experiment development, testing integration, and operation. Post-retrieval resources are the observations, testing, analysis, and publications since the January 1990 retrieval of LDEF. A third set of resources is the experiment and facility hardware and specimens, including more than 10,000 test specimens flown on LDEF and subsequently divided and distributed among investigators at numerous laboratories. Many valuable science and technology investigations were undertaken with LDEF experiments and hardware, and many more investigations are being identified in areas not yet explored. LDEF data applications encompass primarily low-Earth orbit spacecraft and structures. The nearly six-year space exposure of LDEF has provided data to evaluate materials, systems, and living specimens exposed to radiation, meteoroids, debris, and other constituents of the low-Earth environment. Structural, mechanical, electrical, optical, and thermal systems were studied, and materials with applications in all aspects of space systems were exposed to the space environment. The objectives of the LDEF archival system are to maintain the existing LDEF hardware, data, analysis, publications, and photographs as a long term resource, and to provide a quick and simple mechanism by which LDEF resources can be identified, located, and applied

    Protein crystallization in vivo

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    Protein crystallization in vivo provides some fascinating examples of biological self-assembly. Here, we provide a selective survey to show the diversity of functions for which protein crystals are used, and the physical properties of the crystals thatare exploited. Where known, we emphasize how the nature of the protein-protein interactions leads to control of the crystallization behaviour.Comment: 17 pages, 1 figur
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