124 research outputs found

    Quantum mechanical virial theorem in systems with translational and rotational symmetry

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    Generalized virial theorem for quantum mechanical nonrelativistic and relativistic systems with translational and rotational symmetry is derived in the form of the commutator between the generator of dilations G and the Hamiltonian H. If the conditions of translational and rotational symmetry together with the additional conditions of the theorem are satisfied, the matrix elements of the commutator [G, H] are equal to zero on the subspace of the Hilbert space. Normalized simultaneous eigenvectors of the particular set of commuting operators which contains H, J^{2}, J_{z} and additional operators form an orthonormal basis in this subspace. It is expected that the theorem is relevant for a large number of quantum mechanical N-particle systems with translational and rotational symmetry.Comment: 24 pages, accepted for publication in International Journal of Theoretical Physic

    Phase I/II study of S-1 combined with irinotecan for metastatic advanced gastric cancer

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    A dose-escalation study of irinotecan (CPT-11) combined with S-1, an oral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitory fluoropyrimidine, was performed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), recommended dose (RD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and objective response rate (RR) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). S-1 was administered orally at 80 mg m−2 day−1 from day 1 to 14 of a 28-day cycle and CPT-11 was given intravenously on day 1 and 8 at an initial dose of 70 mg m−2 day−1, stepping up to 100 mg m−2. The treatment was repeated every 4 weeks, unless disease progression was observed. In the phase I portion, the MTD of CPT-11 was presumed to be 100 mg m−2, because 66.6% of patients (two of three) developed DLTs. All three patients at the initial RD of CPT-11 (90 mg m−2) experienced grade 4 haematological or grade 3 nonhaematological toxicities at second course, followed by the dose reduction of CPT-11 from the third course. Considering safety and the ability to continue treatment, the final RD was determined to be 80 mg m−2. In the phase II portion, 42 patients including seven patients in the final RD phase I portion were evaluated. The median treatment course was five (range: 1–13). The incidences of severe (grade 3–4) haematological and nonhaematological toxicities were 19 and 10%, respectively, but all were manageable. The RR was 62% (26 of 42, 95% confidence interval: 47.2–76.6%), and the median survival time was 444 days. Our phase I/II trial showed S-1 combined with CPT-11 is effective for AGC and is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity

    An open, multi-centre, phase II clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel, UFT, and leucovorin in patients with advanced gastric cancer

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    The aim of the study was to evaluate the response rate and safety of weekly paclitaxel (Taxol®) combination chemotherapy with UFT (tegafur, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug, and uracil at a 1 : 4 molar ratio) and leucovorin (LV) in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Patients with histologically confirmed, locally advanced or recurrent/metastatic gastric cancer were studied. Paclitaxel 1-h infusion at a dose of 100 mg m−2 on days 1 and 8 and oral UFT 300 mg m−2 day−1 plus LV 90 mg day−1 were given starting from day 1 for 14 days, followed by a 7-day period without treatment. Treatment was repeated every 21 days. From February 2003 to October 2004, 55 patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 years (range: 32–82). Among the 48 patients evaluated for tumour response, two achieved a complete response and 22 a partial response, with an overall response rate of 50% (95% confidence interval: 35–65%). All 55 patients were evaluated for survival and toxicities. Median time to progression and overall survival were 4.4 and 9.8 months, respectively. Major grade 3–4 toxicities were neutropenia in 25 patients (45%) and diarrhoea in eight patients (15%). Although treatment was discontinued owing to treatment-related toxicities in nine patients (16%), there was no treatment-related mortality. Weekly paclitaxel plus oral UFT/LV is effective, convenient, and well tolerated in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer

    Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity: relationship to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in diabetic patients or metabolic syndrome. An observational prospective study. LOD-DIABETES study protocol

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Diabetic patients show an increased prevalence of non-dipping arterial pressure pattern, target organ damage and elevated arterial stiffness. These alterations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.</p> <p>The objectives of this study are the following: to evaluate the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the incidence and outcome of target organ damage and the appearance of cardiovascular episodes (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, chest pain and stroke) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p><b>Design</b>: This is an observational prospective study with 5 years duration, of which the first year corresponds to patient inclusion and initial evaluation, and the remaining four years to follow-up.</p> <p><b>Setting</b>: The study will be carried out in the urban primary care setting.</p> <p><b>Study population</b>: Consecutive sampling will be used to include patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 20-80 years of age. A total of 110 patients meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be included.</p> <p><b>Measurements</b>: Patient age and sex, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Height, weight, heart rate and abdominal circumference. Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, lipid profile, creatinine, microalbuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood insulin, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinical and 24-hour ambulatory (home) blood pressure monitoring and self-measured blood pressure. Common carotid artery ultrasound for the determination of mean carotid intima-media thickness. Electrocardiogram for assessing left ventricular hypertrophy. Ankle-brachial index. Retinal vascular study based on funduscopy with non-mydriatic retinography and evaluation of pulse wave morphology and pulse wave velocity using the SphygmoCor system. The medication used for diabetes, arterial hypertension and hyperlipidemia will be registered, together with antiplatelet drugs.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>The results of this study will help to know and quantify the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the evolution of the subclinical target organ damage markers and the possible incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.</p> <p>Trial Registration</p> <p>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01065155</p