73 research outputs found

    Bulk viscosity in superfluid neutron star cores. III. Effects of Σ\Sigma^- hyperons

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    Bulk viscosity of neutron star cores containing hyperons is studied taking into account non-equilibrium weak process n+np+Σn+n \rightleftharpoons p+\Sigma^-. Rapid growth of the bulk viscosity within the neutron star core associated with switching on new reactions (modified Urca process, direct Urca process, hyperon reactions) is analyzed. The suppression of the bulk viscosity by superfluidity of baryons is considered and found out to be very important.Comment: LaTeX, 9 pages, added reference, version accepted by Astron. Astrophy

    Cooling neutron stars and superfluidity in their interiors

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    We study the heat capacity and neutrino emission reactions (direct and modified Urca processes, nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, Cooper pairing of nucleons) in matter of supranuclear density of the neutron star cores with superfluid neutrons and protons. Various superfluidity types are analysed (singlet-state pairing and two types of triplet-state pairing, without and with nodes of the gap at a nucleon Fermi surface). The results are used for cooling simulations of isolated neutron stars. Both, the standard cooling and the cooling enhanced by the direct Urca process, are strongly affected by nucleon superfluidity. Comparison of cooling theory of isolated neutron stars with observations of their thermal radiation may give stringent constraints on the critical temperatures of the neutron and proton superfluidities in the neutron star cores.Comment: LaTeX, 85 pages, 23 figures, Physics - Uspekhi (accepted

    Bulk viscosity in superfluid neutron star cores. I. Direct Urca processes in npe\mu matter

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    The bulk viscosity of the neutron star matter due to the direct Urca processes involving nucleons, electrons and muons is studied taking into account possible superfluidity of nucleons in the neutron star cores. The cases of singlet-state pairing or triplet-state pairing (without and with nodes of the superfluid gap at the Fermi surface) of nucleons are considered. It is shown that the superfluidity may strongly reduce the bulk viscosity. The practical expressions for the superfluid reduction factors are obtained. For illustration, the bulk viscosity is calculated for two models of dense matter composed of neutrons, protons,electrons and muons. The presence of muons affects the bulk viscosity due to the direct Urca reactions involving electrons and produces additional comparable contribution due to the direct Urca reactions involving muons. The results can be useful for studying damping of vibrations of neutron stars with superfluid cores.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures, latex, uses aa.cls, to be published in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Adiabatic Index of Dense Matter and Damping of Neutron Star Pulsations

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    The adiabatic index Gamma_1 for perturbations of dense matter is studied under various physical conditions which can prevail in neutron star cores. The dependence of Gamma_1 on the composition of matter (in particular, on the presence of hyperons), on the stellar pulsation amplitude, and on the baryon superfluidity is analyzed. Timescales of damping of stellar pulsations are estimated at different compositions, temperatures, and pulsation amplitudes. Damping of pulsations by bulk viscosity in the neutron-star cores can prevent the stars to pulsate with relative amplitudes > (1-15)% (depending on the composition of matter)

    Quark core impact on hybrid star cooling

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    In this paper we investigate the thermal evolution of hybrid stars, objects composed of a quark matter core, enveloped by ordinary hadronic matter. Our purpose is to investigate how important are the microscopic properties of the quark core to the thermal evolution of the star. In order to do that we use a simple MIT bag model for the quark core, and a relativistic mean field model for the hadronic envelope. By choosing different values for the microscopic parameters (bag constant, strange quark mass, strong coupling constant) we obtain hybrid stars with different quark core properties. We also consider the possibility of color superconductivity in the quark core. With this simple approach, we have found a set of microscopic parameters that lead to a good agreement with observed cooling neutron stars. Our results can be used to obtain clues regarding the properties of the quark core in hybrid stars, and can be used to refine more sophisticated models for the equation of state of quark matter.Comment: 8 pages, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Thermal Evolution and Light Curves of Young Bare Strange Stars

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    The cooling of a young bare strange star is studied numerically by solving the equations of energy conservation and heat transport for both normal and superconducting strange quark matter inside the star. We show that the thermal luminosity from the strange star surface, due to both photon emission and e+e- pair production, may be orders of magnitude higher than the Eddington limit, for about one day for normal quark matter but possibly for up to a hundred years for superconducting quark matter, while the maximum of the photon spectrum is in hard X-rays with a mean energy of ~ 100 keV or even more. This differs both qualitatively and quantitatively from the photon emission from young neutron stars and provides a definite observational signature for bare strange stars. It is shown that the energy gap of superconducting strange quark matter may be estimated from the light curves if it is in the range from ~ 0.5 MeV to a few MeV.Comment: Ref [10] added and abstract shortened. 4 pages, 3 figures, revtex4. To be published in Phys. Rev. Letter