632 research outputs found

    Feedback-controlled transport in an interacting colloidal system

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    Based on dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) we consider a non-equilibrium system of interacting colloidal particles driven by a constant tilting force through a periodic, symmetric "washboard" potential. We demonstrate that, despite of pronounced spatio-temporal correlations, the particle current can be reversed by adding suitable feedback control terms to the DDFT equation of motion. We explore two distinct control protocols with time delay, focussing on either the particle positions or the density profile. Our study shows that the DDFT is an appropriate framework to implement time-delayed feedback control strategies widely used in other fields of nonlinear physicsComment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Phase separation dynamics in a two-dimensional magnetic mixture

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    Based on classical density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the demixing phase transition of a two-dimensional, binary Heisenberg fluid mixture. The particles in the mixture are modeled as Gaussian soft spheres, where one component is characterized by an additional classical spin-spin interaction of Heisenberg type. Within the DFT we treat the particle interactions using a mean-field approximation. For certain magnetic coupling strengths, we calculate phase diagrams in the density-concentration plane. For sufficiently large coupling strengths and densities, we find a demixing phase transition driven by the ferromagnetic interactions of the magnetic species. We also provide a microscopic description (i.e., density profiles) of the resulting non-magnetic/magnetic fluid-fluid interface. Finally, we investigate the phase separation using dynamical density functional theory, considering both nucleation processes and spinodal demixing

    On the stability of periodic orbits in delay equations with large delay

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    We prove a necessary and sufficient criterion for the exponential stability of periodic solutions of delay differential equations with large delay. We show that for sufficiently large delay the Floquet spectrum near criticality is characterized by a set of curves, which we call asymptotic continuous spectrum, that is independent on the delay.Comment: postprint versio

    Directional Freeze-Casting : A Bioinspired Method to Assemble Multifunctional Aligned Porous Structures for Advanced Applications

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    Herein, the potential of directional freeze-casting techniques as a very generic, green, and straightforward approach for the processing of various functional porous materials is introduced. These materials include 3D monoliths, films, fibers, and microspheres/beads, which are obtained by the assembly of network building blocks originated from cryoassembly of the various aqueous-based systems. The process simply relies on 1) directional freezing of the slurry through contact with a cold surface, 2) maintaining the slurry at the frozen state for a particular time with controlling the freezing parameters and directions, and 3) sublimation of the created ice crystal templates inside the developed structure to translate the ice growth pattern to final porous structure. The materials developed with such a cryogenic process contain a highly complex porous structure, e.g., a hierarchical and well-aligned microstructure in different levels, which renders a high control over the physicochemical and mechanical functionalities. Due to the versatility and controllability of this technique, the process can also be extended for the mimicking of the structures found in natural materials to the bulk materials to assemble bioinspired porous composites with many useful mechanical and physical features. The aim, herein, is to give a brief overview of the recent advances in developing anisotropic porous inorganic, organic, hybrid, and carbonaceous materials with a particular emphasis on materials with biomimicking microstructure using directional ice templating approach and to highlight their recent breakthrough for different high-performance applications.Peer reviewe

    Phase separation dynamics in a two-dimensional magnetic mixture

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    Based on classical density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the demixing phase transition of a two-dimensional, binary Heisenberg fluid mixture. The particles in the mixture are modeled as Gaussian soft spheres, where one component is characterized by an additional classical spin-spin interaction of Heisenberg type. Within the DFT we treat the particle interactions using a mean-field approximation. For certain magnetic coupling strengths we calculate phase diagrams in the density-concentration plane. For sufficiently large coupling strengths and densities, we find a demixing phase transition driven by the ferromagnetic interactions of the magnetic species. We also provide a microscopic description (i.e., density profiles) of the resulting non-magnetic/magnetic fluid-fluid interface. Finally, we investigate the phase separation using dynamical density functional theory (DDFT), considering both nucleation processes and spinodal demixing.Comment: 15 pages, 10 figure

    Intrinsic Decoherence Dynamics in Smooth Hamiltonian Systems: Quantum-classical Correspondence

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    A direct classical analog of the quantum dynamics of intrinsic decoherence in Hamiltonian systems, characterized by the time dependence of the linear entropy of the reduced density operator, is introduced. The similarities and differences between the classical and quantum decoherence dynamics of an initial quantum state are exposed using both analytical and computational results. In particular, the classicality of early-time intrinsic decoherence dynamics is explored analytically using a second-order perturbative treatment, and an interesting connection between decoherence rates and the stability nature of classical trajectories is revealed in a simple approximate classical theory of intrinsic decoherence dynamics. The results offer new insights into decoherence, dynamics of quantum entanglement, and quantum chaos.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, to appear in Physical Review

    Frequency locking of modulated waves

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    We consider the behavior of a modulated wave solution to an S1\mathbb{S}^1-equivariant autonomous system of differential equations under an external forcing of modulated wave type. The modulation frequency of the forcing is assumed to be close to the modulation frequency of the modulated wave solution, while the wave frequency of the forcing is supposed to be far from that of the modulated wave solution. We describe the domain in the three-dimensional control parameter space (of frequencies and amplitude of the forcing) where stable locking of the modulation frequencies of the forcing and the modulated wave solution occurs. Our system is a simplest case scenario for the behavior of self-pulsating lasers under the influence of external periodically modulated optical signals

    Towards improved decision support in the assessment and management of pain for people with dementia in hospital: a systematic meta-review and observational study

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    This is the final version. Available from NIHR Journals Library via the DOI in this record.Background Pain and dementia are common in older people, and impaired cognitive abilities make it difficult for them to communicate their pain. Pain, if poorly managed, impairs health and well-being. Accurate pain assessment in this vulnerable group is challenging for hospital staff, but essential for appropriate management. Robust methods for identifying, assessing and managing pain are needed. Aims and objectives Two studies were undertaken to inform the development of a decision support tool to aid hospital staff in the recognition, assessment and management of pain. The first was a meta-review of systematic reviews of observational pain assessment instruments with three objectives: (1) to identify the tools available to assess pain in adults with dementia; (2) to identify in which settings they were used and with what patient populations; and (3) to assess their reliability, validity and clinical utility. The second was a multisite observational study in hospitals with four objectives: (1) to identify information currently used by clinicians when detecting and managing pain in patients with dementia; (2) to explore existing processes for detecting and managing pain in these patients; (3) to identify the role (actual/potential) of carers in this process; and (4) to explore the organisational context in which health professionals operate. Findings also informed development of health economics data collection forms to evaluate the implementation of a new decision support intervention in hospitals. Methods For the meta-review of systematic reviews, 12 databases were searched. Reviews of observational pain assessment instruments that provided psychometric data were included. Papers were quality assessed and data combined using narrative synthesis. The observational study used an ethnographic approach in 11 wards in four UK hospitals. This included non-participant observation of 31 patients, audits of patient records, semistructured interviews with 52 staff and four carers, informal conversations with staff and carers and analysis of ward documents and policies. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken by the project team. Results Data from eight systematic reviews including 28 tools were included in the meta-review. Most tools showed moderate to good reliability, but information about validity, feasibility and clinical utility was scarce. The observational study showed complex ward cultures and routines, with variations in time spent with patients, communication patterns and management practices. Carer involvement was rare. No pain decision support tools were observed in practice. Information about pain was elicited in different ways, at different times, by different health-care staff and recorded in separate documents. Individual staff made sense of patients’ pain by creating their own ‘overall picture’ from available information. Limitations Grey literature and non-English-language papers were excluded from the meta-review. Sample sizes in the observational study were smaller than planned owing to poor documentation of patients’ dementia diagnoses, gatekeeping by staff and difficulties in gaining consent/assent. Many patients had no or geographically distant carers, or a spouse who was too unwell and/or reluctant to participate. Conclusions No single observational pain scale was clearly superior to any other. The traditional linear concept of pain being assessed, treated and reassessed by single individuals did not ‘fit’ with clinical reality. A new approach enabling effective communication among patients, carers and staff, centralised recording of pain-related information, and an extended range of pain management interventions is proposed [Pain And Dementia Decision Support (PADDS)]. This was not tested with users, but a follow-on study aims to codesign PADDS with carers and clinicians, then introduce education on staff/patient/carer communications and use of PADDS within a structured implementation plan. PADDS will need to be tested in differing ward contexts.National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programm

    Pain assessment for people with dementia: a systematic review of systematic reviews of pain assessment tools.

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    BACKGROUND: There is evidence of under-detection and poor management of pain in patients with dementia, in both long-term and acute care. Accurate assessment of pain in people with dementia is challenging and pain assessment tools have received considerable attention over the years, with an increasing number of tools made available. Systematic reviews on the evidence of their validity and utility mostly compare different sets of tools. This review of systematic reviews analyses and summarises evidence concerning the psychometric properties and clinical utility of pain assessment tools in adults with dementia or cognitive impairment. METHODS: We searched for systematic reviews of pain assessment tools providing evidence of reliability, validity and clinical utility. Two reviewers independently assessed each review and extracted data from them, with a third reviewer mediating when consensus was not reached. Analysis of the data was carried out collaboratively. The reviews were synthesised using a narrative synthesis approach. RESULTS: We retrieved 441 potentially eligible reviews, 23 met the criteria for inclusion and 8 provided data for extraction. Each review evaluated between 8 and 13 tools, in aggregate providing evidence on a total of 28 tools. The quality of the reviews varied and the reporting often lacked sufficient methodological detail for quality assessment. The 28 tools appear to have been studied in a variety of settings and with varied types of patients. The reviews identified several methodological limitations across the original studies. The lack of a 'gold standard' significantly hinders the evaluation of tools' validity. Most importantly, the samples were small providing limited evidence for use of any of the tools across settings or populations. CONCLUSIONS: There are a considerable number of pain assessment tools available for use with the elderly cognitive impaired population. However there is limited evidence about their reliability, validity and clinical utility. On the basis of this review no one tool can be recommended given the existing evidence
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