32,765 research outputs found

### Angular Normal Modes of a Circular Coulomb Cluster

We investigate the angular normal modes for small oscillations about an
equilibrium of a single-component coulomb cluster confined by a radially
symmetric external potential to a circle. The dynamical matrix for this system
is a Laplacian symmetrically circulant matrix and this result leads to an
analytic solution for the eigenfrequencies of the angular normal modes. We also
show the limiting dependence of the largest eigenfrequency for large numbers of
particles

### Specific volumes of the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 alloy in the liquid, glass, and crystalline states

The specific volumes of the Zr41.2Ti13.8CU12.5Ni10.0Be2.25 alloy as a function of temperature, T, are determined by employing an image digitizing technique and numerical calculation methods applied to the electrostatically levitated spherical alloy. The linear fitting of the volumes of the alloy in the liquid, V-l, glass, V-g, and crystalline V-c, states in the temperature ranges shown in parentheses are V-l(T) = 0.1583 + 8.877 x 10(-6)T(cm^(3)/g) (700-1300 K); V-g(T) = 0.1603 + 5.528 x 10^(-6)T (400-550 K); V-c(T) = 0.1583 + 6.211 x 10(-6)T(400-850 K). The average volume thermal expansion coefficients within the temperature ranges are determined to be 5.32, 3.39, and 3.83 x 10^(-5) (1/K) for the liquid, glass, and crystalline states, respectively

### Quintessential Kination and Leptogenesis

Thermal leptogenesis induced by the CP-violating decay of a right-handed
neutrino (RHN) is discussed in the background of quintessential kination, i.e.,
in a cosmological model where the energy density of the early Universe is
assumed to be dominated by the kinetic term of a quintessence field during some
epoch of its evolution. This assumption may lead to very different
observational consequences compared to the case of a standard cosmology where
the energy density of the Universe is dominated by radiation. We show that,
depending on the choice of the temperature T_r above which kination dominates
over radiation, any situation between the strong and the super--weak wash--out
regime are equally viable for leptogenesis, even with the RHN Yukawa coupling
fixed to provide the observed atmospheric neutrino mass scale ~ 0.05 eV. For M<
T_r < M/100, i.e., when kination stops to dominate at a time which is not much
later than when leptogenesis takes place, the efficiency of the process,
defined as the ratio between the produced lepton asymmetry and the amount of CP
violation in the RHN decay, can be larger than in the standard scenario of
radiation domination. This possibility is limited to the case when the neutrino
mass scale is larger than about 0.01 eV. The super--weak wash--out regime is
obtained for T_r << M/100, and includes the case when T_r is close to the
nucleosynthesis temperature ~ 1 MeV. Irrespective of T_r, we always find a
sufficient window above the electroweak temperature T ~ 100 GeV for the
sphaleron transition to thermalize, so that the lepton asymmetry can always be
converted to the observed baryon asymmetry.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figure

### Interference measurements of non-Abelian e/4 & Abelian e/2 quasiparticle braiding

The quantum Hall states at filling factors $\nu=5/2$ and $7/2$ are expected
to have Abelian charge $e/2$ quasiparticles and non-Abelian charge $e/4$
quasiparticles. For the first time we report experimental evidence for the
non-Abelian nature of excitations at $\nu=7/2$ and examine the fermion parity,
a topological quantum number of an even number of non-Abelian quasiparticles,
by measuring resistance oscillations as a function of magnetic field in
Fabry-P\'erot interferometers using new high purity heterostructures. The phase
of observed $e/4$ oscillations is reproducible and stable over long times
(hours) near $\nu=5/2$ and $7/2$, indicating stability of the fermion parity.
When phase fluctuations are observed, they are predominantly $\pi$ phase flips,
consistent with fermion parity change. We also examine lower-frequency
oscillations attributable to Abelian interference processes in both states.
Taken together, these results constitute new evidence for the non-Abelian
nature of $e/4$ quasiparticles; the observed life-time of their combined
fermion parity further strengthens the case for their utility for topological
quantum computation.Comment: A significantly revised version; 54 double-column pages containing 14
pages of main text + Supplementary Materials. The figures, which include a
number of new figures, are now incorporated into the tex

### Surface segregation and the Al problem in GaAs quantum wells

Low-defect two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) are essential for studies
of fragile many-body interactions that only emerge in nearly-ideal systems. As
a result, numerous efforts have been made to improve the quality of
modulation-doped Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As/GaAs quantum wells (QWs), with an emphasis
on purifying the source material of the QW itself or achieving better vacuum in
the deposition chamber. However, this approach overlooks another crucial
component that comprises such QWs, the Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As barrier. Here we show
that having a clean Al source and hence a clean barrier is instrumental to
obtain a high-quality GaAs 2DES in a QW. We observe that the mobility of the
2DES in GaAs QWs declines as the thickness or Al content of the
Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As barrier beneath the QW is increased, which we attribute to
the surface segregation of Oxygen atoms that originate from the Al source. This
conjecture is supported by the improved mobility in the GaAs QWs as the Al cell
is cleaned out by baking

### Peeling from a patterned thin elastic film

Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as
textured thin films, we consider the displacement controlled peeling of a
flexible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find
that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher
than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple
incisions thus cause the crack to propagate intermittently. Microscopically,
this mode of crack initiation and propagation in geometrically confined thin
adhesive films is related to the nucleation of cavitation bubbles behind the
incision which must grow and coalesce before a viable crack propagates. Our
theoretical analysis allows us to rationalize these experimental observations
qualitatively and quantitatively and suggests a simple design criterion for
increasing the interfacial fracture toughness of adhesive films.Comment: 8 pages, To appear in Proceedings of Royal Society London, Ser.

### Quantum phase transitions in a resonant-level model with dissipation: Renormalization-group studies

We study a spinless level that hybridizes with a fermionic band and is also
coupled via its charge to a dissipative bosonic bath. We consider the general
case of a power-law hybridization function \Gamma(\w)\propto |\w|^r with
$r\ge 0$, and a bosonic bath spectral function B(\w)\propto \w^s with $s\ge
-1$. For $r<1$ and $\mathrm{max}(0,2r-1)<s<1$, this Bose-Fermi quantum impurity
model features a continuous zero-temperature transition between a delocalized
phase, with tunneling between the impurity level and the band, and a localized
phase, in which dissipation suppresses tunneling in the low-energy limit. The
phase diagram and the critical behavior of the model are elucidated using
perturbative and numerical renormalization-group techniques, between which
there is excellent agreement in the appropriate regimes. For $r=0$ this model's
critical properties coincide with those of the spin-boson and Ising Bose-Fermi
Kondo models, as expected from bosonization.Comment: 14 pages, 14 eps figure

### Persistent Homology in Sparse Regression and its Application to Brain Morphometry

Sparse systems are usually parameterized by a tuning parameter that
determines the sparsity of the system. How to choose the right tuning parameter
is a fundamental and difficult problem in learning the sparse system. In this
paper, by treating the the tuning parameter as an additional dimension,
persistent homological structures over the parameter space is introduced and
explored. The structures are then further exploited in speeding up the
computation using the proposed soft-thresholding technique. The topological
structures are further used as multivariate features in the tensor-based
morphometry (TBM) in characterizing white matter alterations in children who
have experienced severe early life stress and maltreatment. These analyses
reveal that stress-exposed children exhibit more diffuse anatomical
organization across the whole white matter region.Comment: submitted to IEEE Transactions on Medical Imagin

### The effect of network structure on phase transitions in queuing networks

Recently, De Martino et al have presented a general framework for the study
of transportation phenomena on complex networks. One of their most significant
achievements was a deeper understanding of the phase transition from the
uncongested to the congested phase at a critical traffic load. In this paper,
we also study phase transition in transportation networks using a discrete time
random walk model. Our aim is to establish a direct connection between the
structure of the graph and the value of the critical traffic load. Applying
spectral graph theory, we show that the original results of De Martino et al
showing that the critical loading depends only on the degree sequence of the
graph -- suggesting that different graphs with the same degree sequence have
the same critical loading if all other circumstances are fixed -- is valid only
if the graph is dense enough. For sparse graphs, higher order corrections,
related to the local structure of the network, appear.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figure

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