17,405 research outputs found

    Shape evolution of electrodeposited bumps into deep cavities

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    Metal posts and finer pitch solder bumps are the indispensable microconnectors for chip size packaging and are formed by electrodeposition into deep cavities. It is difficult to stir inside these deep cavities. Natural convection due to density difference is effective in stirring inside cavity with 200 mum cathode width of aspect ratio of one. The bump shape increases toward lower side in a vertical cathode arrangement with placement angle of Theta = 90 degrees. This increase in bump height results from a collision of flow along the lower side of the resist sidewall which enlarges local current and thickens the lower edge of bumps. The effect of natural convection is also evident in the neighboring two cavities of 200 mum cathode width. The natural convection is not effective for cavities with less than 100 mum cathode width. The bump shapes become flat. Only diffusion occurs within these smaller than 100 mum cavities. (C) 2001 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.</p

    Non-Abelian Stokes Theorem and Quark Confinement in SU(3) Yang-Mills Gauge Theory

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    We derive a new version of SU(3) non-Abelian Stokes theorem by making use of the coherent state representation on the coset space SU(3)/(U(1)Ă—U(1))=F2SU(3)/(U(1)\times U(1))=F_2, the flag space. Then we outline a derivation of the area law of the Wilson loop in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in the maximal Abelian gauge (The detailed exposition will be given in a forthcoming article). This derivation is performed by combining the non-Abelian Stokes theorem with the reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory as a perturbative deformation of a topological field theory recently proposed by one of the authors. Within this framework, we show that the fundamental quark is confined even if G=SU(3)G=SU(3) is broken by partial gauge fixing into H=U(2)H=U(2) just as GG is broken to H=U(1)Ă—U(1)H=U(1) \times U(1). An origin of the area law is related to the geometric phase of the Wilczek-Zee holonomy for U(2). Abelian dominance is an immediate byproduct of these results and magnetic monopole plays the dominant role in this derivation.Comment: 14 pages, Latex, no figures, version accepted for publication in Mod. Phys. Lett. A (some comments are added in the final parts

    Magnetic condensation, Abelian dominance, and instability of Savvidy vacuum in Yang-Mills theory

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    We propose a novel type of color magnetic condensation originating from magnetic monopoles so that it provides the mass of off-diagonal gluons in the Yang-Mills theory. This dynamical mass generation enables us to explain the infrared Abelian dominance and monopole dominance by way of a non-Abelian Stokes theorem, which supports the dual superconductivity picture of quark confinement. Moreover, we show that the instability of Savvidy vacuum disappears by sufficiently large color magnetic condensation.Comment: 6 pages, 1 figure; a contribution to the 8th workshop on non-perturbative QC

    Vacuum condensates, effective gluon mass and color confinement

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    We propose a new reformulation of Yang-Mills theory in which three- and four-gluon self-interactions are eliminated at the price of introducing a sufficient number of auxiliary fields. We discuss the validity of this reformulation in the possible applications such as dynamical gluon mass generation, color confinement and glueball mass calculation. We emphasize the transverse-gluon pair condensation as the basic mechanism for dynamical mass generation. The confinement is realized as a consequence of a fact that the auxiliary fields become dynamical in the sense that they acquire the kinetic term due to quantum corrections.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures, invited talk given at International Symposium on Color Confinement and Hadrons in Quantum Chromodynamics - Confinement 2003, Wako, Japan, 21-24 Jul 2003, a reference correcte

    Implications of Analyticity to Mass Gap, Color Confinement and Infrared Fixed Point in Yang--Mills theory

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    Analyticity of gluon and Faddeev--Popov ghost propagators and their form factors on the complex momentum-squared plane is exploited to continue analytically the ultraviolet asymptotic form calculable by perturbation theory into the infrared non-perturbative solution. We require the non-perturbative multiplicative renormalizability to write down the renormalization group equation. These requirements enable one to settle the value of the exponent characterizing the infrared asymptotic solution with power behavior which was originally predicted by Gribov and has recently been found as approximate solutions of the coupled truncated Schwinger--Dyson equations. For this purpose, we have obtained all the possible superconvergence relations for the propagators and form factors in both the generalized Lorentz gauge and the modified Maximal Abelian gauge. We show that the transverse gluon propagators are suppressed in the infrared region to be of the massive type irrespective of the gauge parameter, in agreement with the recent result of numerical simulations on a lattice. However, this method alone is not sufficient to specify some of the ghost propagators which play the crucial role in color confinement. Combining the above result with the renormalization group equation again, we find an infrared enhanced asymptotic solution for the ghost propagator. The coupled solutions fulfill the color confinement criterion due to Kugo and Ojima and also Nishijima, at least, in the Lorentz--Landau gauge. We also point out that the solution in compatible with color confinement leads to the existence of the infrared fixed point in pure Yang--Mills theory without dynamical quarks. Finally, the Maximal Abelian gauge is also examined in connection with quark confinement.Comment: 60 pages, 11 figure

    Renormalizing a BRST-invariant composite operator of mass dimension 2 in Yang-Mills theory

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    We discuss the renormalization of a BRST and anti-BRST invariant composite operator of mass dimension 2 in Yang-Mills theory with the general BRST and anti-BRST invariant gauge fixing term of the Lorentz type. The interest of this study stems from a recent claim that the non-vanishing vacuum condensate of the composite operator in question can be an origin of mass gap and quark confinement in any manifestly covariant gauge, as proposed by one of the authors. First, we obtain the renormalization group flow of the Yang-Mills theory. Next, we show the multiplicative renormalizability of the composite operator and that the BRST and anti-BRST invariance of the bare composite operator is preserved under the renormalization. Third, we perform the operator product expansion of the gluon and ghost propagators and obtain the Wilson coefficient corresponding to the vacuum condensate of mass dimension 2. Finally, we discuss the connection of this work with the previous works and argue the physical implications of the obtained results.Comment: 49 pages, 35 eps-files, A number of typographic errors are corrected. A paragraph is added in the beginning of section 5.3. Two equations (7.1) and (7.2) are added. A version to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Yang-Mills theory constructed from Cho--Faddeev--Niemi decomposition

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    We give a new way of looking at the Cho--Faddeev--Niemi (CFN) decomposition of the Yang-Mills theory to answer how the enlarged local gauge symmetry respected by the CFN variables is restricted to obtain another Yang-Mills theory with the same local and global gauge symmetries as the original Yang-Mills theory. This may shed new light on the fundamental issue of the discrepancy between two theories for independent degrees of freedom and the role of the Maximal Abelian gauge in Yang-Mills theory. As a byproduct, this consideration gives new insight into the meaning of the gauge invariance and the observables, e.g., a gauge-invariant mass term and vacuum condensates of mass dimension two. We point out the implications for the Skyrme--Faddeev model.Comment: 17pages, 1 figure; English improved; a version appeared in Prog. Theor. Phy
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