82 research outputs found

### Rotating Superconductors and the London Moment: Thermodynamics versus Microscopics

Comparing various microscopic theories of rotating superconductors to the
conclusions of thermodynamic considerations, we traced their marked difference
to the question of how some thermodynamic quantities (the electrostatic and
chemical potentials) are related to more microscopic ones: The electron's the
work function, mean-field potential and Fermi energy -- certainly a question of
general import.
After the correct identification is established, the relativistic correction
for the London Moment is shown to vanish, with the obvious contribution from
the Fermi velocity being compensated by other contributions such as
electrostatics and interactions.Comment: 23 pages 4 fi

### Dissipation in ferrofluids: Mesoscopic versus hydrodynamic theory

Part of the field dependent dissipation in ferrofluids occurs due to the
rotational motion of the ferromagnetic grains relative to the viscous flow of
the carrier fluid. The classical theoretical description due to Shliomis uses a
mesoscopic treatment of the particle motion to derive a relaxation equation for
the non-equilibrium part of the magnetization. Complementary, the hydrodynamic
approach of Liu involves only macroscopic quantities and results in dissipative
Maxwell equations for the magnetic fields in the ferrofluid. Different stress
tensors and constitutive equations lead to deviating theoretical predictions in
those situations, where the magnetic relaxation processes cannot be considered
instantaneous on the hydrodynamic time scale. We quantify these differences for
two situations of experimental relevance namely a resting fluid in an
oscillating oblique field and the damping of parametrically excited surface
waves. The possibilities of an experimental differentiation between the two
theoretical approaches is discussed.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figures, to appear in PR

### SENSE: A comparison of photon detection efficiency and optical crosstalk of various SiPM devices

This paper describes a comparison of photon detection efficiency and optical
crosstalk measurements performed by three partners: Geneva University, Catania
Observatory and Nagoya University. The measurements were compared for three
different SiPM devices with different active areas: from 9 $mm^2$ up to 93.6
$mm^2$ produced by Hamamatsu. The objective of this work is to establish the
measurements and analysis procedures for calculating the main SiPM parameters
and their precision. This work was done in the scope of SENSE project which
aims to build roadmap for the last developments in field of sensors for low
light level detection

### Rotating Superconductors and the Frame-independent London Equation

A frame-independent, thermodynamically exact London equation is presented,
which is especially valid for rotating superconductors. A direct result is the
unexpectedly high accuracy ($\sim10^{-10}$) for the usual expression of the
London moment.Comment: 4 pages, 0 figure

### Inferring signalling networks from longitudinal data using sampling based approaches in the R-package 'ddepn'

<p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Network inference from high-throughput data has become an important means of current analysis of biological systems. For instance, in cancer research, the functional relationships of cancer related proteins, summarised into signalling networks are of central interest for the identification of pathways that influence tumour development. Cancer cell lines can be used as model systems to study the cellular response to drug treatments in a time-resolved way. Based on these kind of data, modelling approaches for the signalling relationships are needed, that allow to generate hypotheses on potential interference points in the networks.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We present the R-package 'ddepn' that implements our recent approach on network reconstruction from longitudinal data generated after external perturbation of network components. We extend our approach by two novel methods: a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for sampling network structures with two edge types (activation and inhibition) and an extension of a prior model that penalises deviances from a given reference network while incorporating these two types of edges. Further, as alternative prior we include a model that learns signalling networks with the scale-free property.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The package 'ddepn' is freely available on R-Forge and CRAN <url>http://ddepn.r-forge.r-project.org</url>, <url>http://cran.r-project.org</url>. It allows to conveniently perform network inference from longitudinal high-throughput data using two different sampling based network structure search algorithms.</p

### Granular Solid Hydrodynamics

Granular elasticity, an elasticity theory useful for calculating static
stress distribution in granular media, is generalized to the dynamic case by
including the plastic contribution of the strain. A complete hydrodynamic
theory is derived based on the hypothesis that granular medium turns
transiently elastic when deformed. This theory includes both the true and the
granular temperatures, and employs a free energy expression that encapsulates a
full jamming phase diagram, in the space spanned by pressure, shear stress,
density and granular temperature. For the special case of stationary granular
temperatures, the derived hydrodynamic theory reduces to {\em hypoplasticity},
a state-of-the-art engineering model.Comment: 42 pages 3 fi

### Fragmentation and Multifragmentation of 10.6A GeV Gold Nuclei

We present the results of a study performed on the interactions of 10.6A GeV
gold nuclei in nuclear emulsions. In a minimum bias sample of 1311 interac-
tions, 5260 helium nuclei and 2622 heavy fragments were observed as Au projec-
tile fragments. The experimental data are analyzed with particular emphasis of
target separation interactions in emulsions and study of criticalexponents.
Multiplicity distributions of the fast-moving projectile fragments are inves-
tigated. Charged fragment moments, conditional moments as well as two and three
-body asymmetries of the fast moving projectile particles are determined in
terms of the total charge remaining bound in the multiply charged projectile
fragments. Some differences in the average yields of helium nuclei and heavier
fragments are observed, which may be attributed to a target effect. However,
two and three-body asymmetries and conditional moments indicate that the
breakup mechanism of the projectile seems to be independent of target mass. We
looked for evidence of critical point observable in finite nuclei by study the
resulting charged fragments distributions. We have obtained the values for the
critical exponents gamma, beta and tau and compare our results with those at
lower energy experiment (1.0A GeV data). The values suggest that a phase
transition like behavior, is observed.Comment: latex, revtex, 28 pages, 12 figures, 3tables, submitted to Europysics
Journal

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