740 research outputs found

    E5501: phase II study of topotecan sequenced with etoposide/cisplatin, and irinotecan/cisplatin sequenced with etoposide for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.

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    PURPOSE: Sequence-dependent improved efficacy of topoisomerase I followed by topoisomerase 2 inhibitors was assessed in a randomized phase II study in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). METHODS: Patients with previously untreated extensive-stage SCLC with measurable disease, ECOG performance status of 0-3 and stable brain metastases were eligible. Arm A consisted of topotecan (0.75 mg/m(2)) on days 1, 2 and 3, etoposide (70 mg/m(2)) and cisplatin (20 mg/m(2)) (PET) on days 8, 9 and 10 in a 3-week cycle. Arm B consisted of irinotecan (50 mg/m(2)) and cisplatin (20 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8 followed by etoposide (85 mg/m(2) PO bid) on days 3 and 10 (PIE) in a 3-week cycle. RESULTS: We enrolled 140 patients and randomized 66 eligible patients to each arm. Only 54.5 % of all patients completed the planned maximum 6 cycles. There were grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events in approximately 70 % of the patients on both arms including 6 treatment-related grade 5 events. The overall response rates (CR + PR) were 69.7 % (90 % CI 59.1-78.9, 95 % CI 57.1-80.4 %) for arm A and 57.6 % (90 % CI 46.7-67.9, 95 % CI 44.8-69.7 %) for arm B. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 6.4 months (95 % CI 5.4-7.5 months) and 11.9 months (95 % CI 9.6-13.7 months) for arm A and 6.0 months (95 % CI 5.4-7.0 months) and 11.0 months (95 % CI 8.6-13.1 months) for arm B. CONCLUSION: Sequential administration of topoisomerase inhibitors did not improve on the historical efficacy of standard platinum-doublet chemotherapy for extensive-stage SCLC

    Partial compartmentalisation of HIV-1 subtype C between lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma

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    HIV-1 compartmentalisation is likely to have important implications for a preventative vaccine as well as eradication strategies. We genetically characterised HIV-1 subtype C variants in lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma of six antiretroviral (ART) naïve individuals and four individuals on ART. Full-length env (n = 171) and gag (n = 250) sequences were generated from participants using single genome amplification. Phylogenetic relatedness of sequences was assessed, and compartmentalisation was determined using both distance and tree-based methods implemented in HyPhy. Additionally, potential associations between compartmentalisation and immune escape mutations were assessed. Partial viral compartmentalisation was present in nine of the ten participants. Broadly neutralising antibody (bnAb) escape was found to be associated with partial env compartmentalisation in some individuals, while cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutations in Gag were limited and did not differ between compartments. Viral compartmentalisation may be an important consideration for bnAb use in viral eradication

    Generation and characterization of infectious molecular clones of transmitted/founder HIV-1 subtype C viruses

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    The genetic diversity of HIV impedes vaccine development. Identifying the viral properties of transmitted/founder (T/F) variants may provide a common vaccine target. To study the biological nature of T/F viruses, we constructed full-length clones from women detected during Fiebig stage I acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) from heterosexual male-to-female (MTF) transmission; and clones after one year of infection using In-Fusion-based cloning. Eighteen full-length T/F clones were generated from 9 women and six chronic infection clones were from 2 individuals. All clones but one were non-recombinant subtype C. Three of the 5 T/F clones and 3 chronic clones tested replicated efficiently in PBMCs and utilised CCR5 coreceptor for cell entry. Transmitted/founder and chronic infection clones displayed heterogenous in vitro replicative capacity and resistance to type I interferon. T/F viruses had shorter Env glycoproteins and fewer N-linked glycosylation sites in Env. Our findings suggest MTF transmission may select viruses with compact envelopes

    Operator Product Expansion for Exclusive Decays: B^+ ->Ds^+ e+e- and B^+ -> Ds^{*+} e+e-

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    The decays B+Ds,d+e+eB^+\to D_{s,d}^+e^+e^- and B+Ds,d+e+eB^+\to D_{s,d}^{*+}e^+e^- proceed through a weak and an electromagnetic interaction. This is a typical ``long distance'' process, usually difficult to compute systematically. We propose that over a large fraction of phase space a combination of an operator product and heavy quark expansions effectively turns this process into one in which the weak and electromagnetic interactions occur through a local operator. Moreover, we use heavy quark spin symmetry to relate all the local operators that appear in leading order of the operator expansion to two basic ones. We use this operator expansion to estimate the decay rates for B+Ds,d()+e+eB^+\to D_{s,d}^{(*)+}e^+e^-.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, Latex, published version in PR