1,393 research outputs found

    Finite-time singularities in f(R, T) gravity and the effect of conformal anomaly

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    We investigate f(R,T)f(R,T) gravity models (RR is the curvature scalar and TT is the trace of the stress-energy tensor of ordinary matter) that are able to reproduce the four known types of future finite-time singularities. We choose a suitable expression for the Hubble parameter in order to realise the cosmic acceleration and we introduce two parameters, α\alpha and HsH_s, which characterise each type of singularity. We address conformal anomaly and we observe that it cannot remove the sudden singularity or the type IV one, but, for some values of α\alpha, the big rip and the type III singularity may be avoided. We also find that, even without taking into account conformal anomaly, the big rip and the type III singularity may be removed thanks to the presence of the TT contribution of the f(R,T)f(R,T) theory.Comment: 18 pages; Accepted for publication in Canadian Journal of Physics (CJP

    Diffuse Hard X-ray Sources Discovered with the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey

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    We found diffuse hard X-ray sources, G11.0+0.0, G25.5+0.0, and G26.6-0.1 in the ASCA Galactic plane survey data. The X-ray spectra are featureless with no emission line, and are fitted with both models of a thin thermal plasma in non-equilibrium ionization and a power-law function. The source distances are estimated to be 1-8 kpc, using the best-fit NH values on the assumption that the mean density in the line of sight is 1 H cm^-3. The source sizes and luminosities are then 4.5-27 pc and (0.8-23)x10^33 ergs/s. Although the source sizes are typical to supernova remnants (SNR) with young to intermediate ages, the X-ray luminosity, plasma temperature, and weak emission lines in the spectra are all unusual. This suggests that these objects are either shell-like SNRs dominated by X-ray synchrotron emission, like SN 1006, or, alternatively, plerionic SNRs. The total number of these classes of SNRs in our Galaxy is also estimated.Comment: 17 pages, 9 figures; to appear in Ap

    Phantom crossing in viable f(R)f(R) theories

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    We review the equation of state for dark energy in modified gravity theories. In particular, we summarize the generic feature of the phantom divide crossing in the past and future in viable f(R)f(R) gravity models.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, talk presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 5-6 Nov 201

    Helical Magnetic Fields from Inflation

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    We analyze the generation of seed magnetic fields during de Sitter inflation considering a non-invariant conformal term in the electromagnetic Lagrangian of the form 14I(ϕ)FμνF~μν-\frac14 I(\phi) F_{\mu \nu} \widetilde{F}^{\mu \nu}, where I(ϕ)I(\phi) is a pseudoscalar function of a non-trivial background field ϕ\phi. In particular, we consider a toy model, that could be realized owing to the coupling between the photon and either a (tachyonic) massive pseudoscalar field and a massless pseudoscalar field non-minimally coupled to gravity, where II follows a simple power-law behavior I(k,η)=g/(kη)βI(k,\eta) = g/(-k\eta)^{\beta} during inflation, while it is negligibly small subsequently. Here, gg is a positive dimensionless constant, kk the wavenumber, η\eta the conformal time, and β\beta a real positive number. We find that only when β=1\beta = 1 and 0.1g20.1 \lesssim g \lesssim 2 astrophysically interesting fields can be produced as excitation of the vacuum, and that they are maximally helical.Comment: 17 pages, 1 figure, subsection IIc and references added; accepted for publication in IJMP

    Chandra Observations of A Galactic Supernova Remnant Vela Jr.: A New Sample of Thin Filaments Emitting Synchrotron X-Rays

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    A galactic supernova remnant (SNR) Vela Jr. (RX J0852.0-4622, G266.6-1.2) shows sharp filamentary structure on the north-western edge of the remnant in the hard X-ray band. The filaments are so smooth and located on the most outer side of the remnant. We measured the averaged scale width of the filaments (wuw_u and wdw_d) with excellent spatial resolution of {\it Chandra}, which are in the order of the size of the point spread function of {\it Chandra} on the upstream side and 49.5 (36.0--88.8) arcsec on the downstream side, respectively. The spectra of the filaments are very hard and have no line-like structure, and were well reproduced with an absorbed power-law model with Γ=\Gamma = 2.67 (2.55--2.77), or a {\tt SRCUT} model with νrolloff\nu_{rolloff} = 4.3 (3.4--5.3)×1016\times 10^{16} Hz under the assumption of p=0.3p=0.3. These results imply that the hard X-rays are synchrotron radiation emitted by accelerated electrons, as mentioned previously. Using a correlation between a function Bνrolloff/wd2{\cal B} \equiv \nu_{rolloff}/w_d^2 and the SNR age, we estimated the distance and the age of Vela Jr.: the estimated distance and age are 0.33 (0.26--0.50) kpc and 660 (420--1400) years, respectively. These results are consistent with previous reports, implying that B{\cal B}--age relation may be a useful tool to estimate the distance and the age of synchrotron X-ray emitting SNRs.Comment: 19 pages, 8 figures, ApJ, in pres