144,545 research outputs found

    The Mathematics Specialist as Visionary Strategist

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    The New World Gospel as Proselyted in Rudolfo Anaya\u27s Jalamanta

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    Conventional Forces can Explain the Anomalous Acceleration of Pioneer 10

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    Anderson, et al. find the measured trajectories of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft deviate from the trajectories computed from known forces acting on them. This unmodelled acceleration (and the less well known, but similar, unmodelled torque) can be accounted for by non-isotropic radiation of spacecraft heat. Various forms of non-isotropic radiation were proposed by Katz, Murphy, and Scheffer, but Anderson, et al. felt that none of these could explain the observed effect. This paper calculates the known effects in more detail and considers new sources of radiation, all based on spacecraft construction. These effects are then modelled over the duration of the experiment. The model reproduces the acceleration from its appearance at a heliocentric distance of 5 AU to the last measurement at 71 AU to within 10 percent. However, it predicts a larger decrease in acceleration between intervals I and III of the Pioneer 10 observations than is observed. This is a 2 sigma discrepancy from the average of the three analyses (SIGMA, CHASMP, and Markwardt). A more complex (but more speculative) model provides a somewhat better fit. Radiation forces can also plausibly explain the previously unmodelled torques, including the spindown of Pioneer 10 that is directly proportional to spacecraft bus heat, and the slow but constant spin-up of Pioneer 11. In any case, by accounting for the bulk of the acceleration, the proposed mechanism makes it much more likely that the entire effect can be explained without the need for new physics.Comment: Final minor changes for publication - added explanation of acronyms, added to RTG asymmetry argument.. Was: 12 pages, 9 figures, major revision. Added discussion of gas leaks and spin history, a radiation based explanation of spin changes, and references to re-analysis of Markwardt. Fixed radio forces, tuned models. Was: 7 pages, 5 figures; added liklihood calculations in body and abstract per suggestio

    Effects of pregnancy, childbirth, and motherhood on high school dropout

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    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the effect of fertility on high school dropout, and differences in that effect by age at first birth. Fertility is conceptualized as a series of states: pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, and motherhood. Pregnant students and mothers are much more likely to drop out than students who are not pregnant or mothers. Models including a wide variety of controls for social background, ability, schooling factors, and adolescent behaviors show that the net effects of pregnancy and motherhood on dropout are substantively and statistically significant. The effects of fertility on dropout are strongest for the youngest students.

    Energetic particle flux experiment (IMP F and G)

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    The data reduction procedures and programs for analysis of the IMP F and G energetic particle flux experiments are summarized. The IMP-F experiment contained two thin-window Geiger-Mueller detectors and an ionization chamber. There were two IMP-G experiments: one with six Geiger-Mueller detectors and an ionization chamber, and the other with two funnel mouthed channeltrons in a parallel plate electrostatic analyzer. These experiments measured particles in the energy range above 20 keV (IMP-F) and above approximately 5 keV (IMP-G). A bibliography is presented of papers containing the scientific results. These data were predominantly used for the study of low energy solar particles from flares

    Relation of energetic particles in the plasma sheet to the auroral zone

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    Relationship of plasma and energetic particles in geomagnetic tail to particle precipitation into auroral zon

    Energetic radiations from solar flares

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    An experiment designed to measure energetic X-rays, electrons, protons and alpha particles from solar flares aboard OGO 5 is reported. A brief statement of the objectives of the experiment is followed by a description of the instrumentation including detector characteristics and associated electronics. The data handling system is then described and the operational history of the experiment is discussed. This is followed by a description of the format of the magnetic data tapes and a summary of the major computer processing programs. The measurements made with this experiment within the first year of its operation have led to several basic results regarding the role of non-thermal electrons in the physics of solar flares. These results are described in the papers listed in the bibliography given at the end of this report

    Data reduction and analysis for ISEE-A and -B energetic particles flux experiment and ISEE-C electron and X-ray experiments

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    A summary of the data reduction and analysis activities from late 1979 to late 1983 is presented. A bibliography of publications is included

    The distribution of species range size: a stochastic process

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    The major role played by environmental factors in determining the geographical range sizes of species raises the possibility of describing their long-term dynamics in relatively simple terms, a goal which has hitherto proved elusive. Here we develop a stochastic differential equation to describe the dynamics of the range size of an individual species based on the relationship between abundance and range size, derive a limiting stationary probability model to quantify the stochastic nature of the range size for that species at steady state, and then generalize this model to the species-range size distribution for an assemblage. The model fits well to several empirical datasets of the geographical range sizes of species in taxonomic assemblages, and provides the simplest explanation of species-range size distributions to date

    Librarians as Members of Integrated Institutional Information Programs: Management and Organizational Issues

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