72,581 research outputs found

    Critique [of Racism and the Canadian State by Daiva K. Stasiulis]

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    Conservative-directed change is a time honored feature of Canadian politics. Canada\u27s elites have long recognized that self-interest may be served most effectively by accepting the inevitability of change and working to mitigate its effects rather than by seeking to block change entirely. In her illuminating article, Stasiulis holds that the development of racial policies of the Canadian state has been controlled by elites seeking to preserve their own dominance by simultaneously following policies of repression and responsiveness: bringing public attention to the problems confronted by minority groups in the Canadian society and attaching the legitimacy that accompanies expression of government concern while simultaneously pursuing policies designed to limit the growth of the minority groups and circumscribing their aspirations for political power

    [Review of] Fred W. Riggs, ed. Ethnicity: INTERCOCTA Glossary-Concepts and Terms Used in Ethnicity Research, Vol. 1

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    An unconventional reference work, the planned International Conceptual Encyclopedia for the Social Sciences should prove useful to persons conducting research in the social sciences or information science. Ethnicity specialists will have an opportunity to make first use of the results of the effort to produce such an encyclopedia because of the early publication of this pilot edition of the ethnicity volume

    Characterization of rat bone marrow lymphoid cells. I. A study of the distribution parameters of sedimentation velocity, volume and electrophoretic mobility

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    Various cell populations in rat bone marrow were characterized by means of a two dimensional separation using velocity sedimentation and free flow electrophoresis and by electrical sizing of the separated cells. Up to 4.5 mm/hr five different populations with discrete distributions in volume (coefficient of variation 10% to 13%) and sedimentation velocity (coefficient of variation 6% to 10%) were observed. Three of the small sized populations represented lymphocytes and small normoblasts and two of the larger sized populations represented myeloid cells. Almost all of these cells were in the G0/G1 cycle phase. In the faster sedimenting fractions which contained immature myeloid, erythroid and undefined blast cells and two S phase populations, discrete volume distributions were not evaluated. The cell populations with homogeneous volume (particularly the small lymphocytes) showed high density variations which condiserably impair the separation resolution. The cells sedimenting slower than 3.5 mm/hr were further separated by means of free flow electrophoresis into three peaks differing in electrophoretic mobility (EPM). The peaks of low and high EPM contained two populations and the peak of medium EPM contained three populations all characterized by normal volume distributions of uniform coefficient of variation between 11% and 14%. The small cells in the peaks of high and medium EPM were normolblasts and the other cells were lymphocytes. The biological significance of these results is discussed

    Jensen's Operator Inequality

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    We establish what we consider to be the definitive versions of Jensen's operator inequality and Jensen's trace inequality for functions defined on an interval. This is accomplished by the introduction of genuine non-commutative convex combinations of operators, as opposed to the contractions used in earlier versions of the theory. As a consequence, we no longer need to impose conditions on the interval of definition. We show how this relates to the pinching inequality of Davis, and how Jensen's trace inequlity generalizes to C*-algebras..Comment: 12 p

    Point-Source Power in 3 Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Data

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    Using a set of multifrequency cross spectra computed from the 3 year WMAP sky maps, we fit for the unresolved point-source contribution. For a white-noise power spectrum, we find a Q-band amplitude of A = 0.011 ± 0.001 μK^2 sr (antenna temperature), significantly smaller than the value of 0.017 ± 0.002 μK^2 sr used to correct the spectra in the WMAP release. Modifying the point-source correction in this way largely resolves the discrepancy that Eriksen et al. found between the WMAP V- and W-band power spectra. Correcting the co-added WMAP spectrum for both the low-l power excess due to a suboptimal likelihood approximation—also reported by Eriksen et al.—and the high-l power deficit due to oversubtracted point sources—presented in this Letter—we find that the net effect in terms of cosmological parameters is an ~0.7 σ shift in n_s to larger values. For the combination of WMAP, BOOMERANG, and ACBAR data, we find ns = 0.969 ± 0.016, lowering the significance of n_s ≠ 1 from ~2.7 σ to ~2.0 σ

    Changes in Aphid Host Plant Diet Influence the Small-RNA Expression Profiles of Its Obligate Nutritional Symbiont, Buchnera.

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    Plants are a difficult food resource to use, and herbivorous insects have evolved a variety of mechanisms that allow them to fully exploit this poor nutritional resource. One such mechanism is the maintenance of bacterial symbionts that aid in host plant feeding and development. The majority of these intracellular symbionts have highly eroded genomes that lack many key regulatory genes; consequently, it is unclear if these symbionts can respond to changes in the insect's diet to facilitate host plant use. There is emerging evidence that symbionts with highly eroded genomes express small RNAs (sRNAs), some of which potentially regulate gene expression. In this study, we sought to determine if the reduced genome of the nutritional symbiont (Buchnera) in the pea aphid responds to changes in the aphid's host plant diet. Using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), Buchnera sRNA expression profiles were characterized within two Buchnera life stages when pea aphids fed on either alfalfa or fava bean. Overall, this study demonstrates that Buchnera sRNA expression changes not only with life stage but also with changes in aphid host plant diet. Of the 321 sRNAs characterized in this study, 47% were previously identified and 22% showed evidence of conservation in two or more Buchnera taxa. Functionally, 13 differentially expressed sRNAs were predicted to target genes related to pathways involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis. Overall, results from this study reveal that host plant diet influences the expression of conserved and lineage-specific sRNAs in Buchnera and that these sRNAs display distinct host plant-specific expression profiles among biological replicates.IMPORTANCE In general, the genomes of intracellular bacterial symbionts are reduced compared to those of free-living relatives and lack many key regulatory genes. Many of these reduced genomes belong to obligate mutualists of insects that feed on a diet that is deficient in essential nutrients, such as essential amino acids. It is unclear if these symbionts respond with their host to changes in insect diet, because of their reduced regulatory capacity. Emerging evidence suggests that these symbionts express small RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine if the reduced genome of the nutritional symbiont Buchnera in the pea aphid responds to changes in the aphid's host plant diet. This study demonstrates for the first time that Buchnera sRNAs, some conserved in two or more Buchnera lineages, are differentially expressed when aphids feed on different plant species and potentially target genes within essential amino acid biosynthesis pathways