36 research outputs found

    Cross-translational studies in human and Drosophila identify markers of sleep loss

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    Inadequate sleep has become endemic, which imposes a substantial burden for public health and safety. At present, there are no objective tests to determine if an individual has gone without sleep for an extended period of time. Here we describe a novel approach that takes advantage of the evolutionary conservation of sleep to identify markers of sleep loss. To begin, we demonstrate that IL-6 is increased in rats following chronic total sleep deprivation and in humans following 30 h of waking. Discovery experiments were then conducted on saliva taken from sleep-deprived human subjects to identify candidate markers. Given the relationship between sleep and immunity, we used Human Inflammation Low Density Arrays to screen saliva for novel markers of sleep deprivation. Integrin αM (ITGAM) and Anaxin A3 (AnxA3) were significantly elevated following 30 h of sleep loss. To confirm these results, we used QPCR to evaluate ITGAM and AnxA3 in independent samples collected after 24 h of waking; both transcripts were increased. The behavior of these markers was then evaluated further using the power of Drosophila genetics as a cost-effective means to determine whether the marker is associated with vulnerability to sleep loss or other confounding factors (e.g., stress). Transcript profiling in flies indicated that the Drosophila homologues of ITGAM were not predictive of sleep loss. Thus, we examined transcript levels of additional members of the integrin family in flies. Only transcript levels of scab, the Drosophila homologue of Integrin α5 (ITGA5), were associated with vulnerability to extended waking. Since ITGA5 was not included on the Low Density Array, we returned to human samples and found that ITGA5 transcript levels were increased following sleep deprivation. These cross-translational data indicate that fly and human discovery experiments are mutually reinforcing and can be used interchangeably to identify candidate biomarkers of sleep loss

    Shift Work in Nurses: Contribution of Phenotypes and Genotypes to Adaptation

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    Daily cycles of sleep/wake, hormones, and physiological processes are often misaligned with behavioral patterns during shift work, leading to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular/metabolic/gastrointestinal disorders, some types of cancer, and mental disorders including depression and anxiety. It is unclear how sleep timing, chronotype, and circadian clock gene variation contribute to adaptation to shift work.Newly defined sleep strategies, chronotype, and genotype for polymorphisms in circadian clock genes were assessed in 388 hospital day- and night-shift nurses.Night-shift nurses who used sleep deprivation as a means to switch to and from diurnal sleep on work days (∼25%) were the most poorly adapted to their work schedule. Chronotype also influenced efficacy of adaptation. In addition, polymorphisms in CLOCK, NPAS2, PER2, and PER3 were significantly associated with outcomes such as alcohol/caffeine consumption and sleepiness, as well as sleep phase, inertia and duration in both single- and multi-locus models. Many of these results were specific to shift type suggesting an interaction between genotype and environment (in this case, shift work).Sleep strategy, chronotype, and genotype contribute to the adaptation of the circadian system to an environment that switches frequently and/or irregularly between different schedules of the light-dark cycle and social/workplace time. This study of shift work nurses illustrates how an environmental "stress" to the temporal organization of physiology and metabolism can have behavioral and health-related consequences. Because nurses are a key component of health care, these findings could have important implications for health-care policy

    Recommended sleep duration is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables; cross-sectional and prospective analyses from the UK Women’s Cohort Study

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    Background: High intakes of fruit and vegetable has been shown to protect against diseases and all-cause mortality however, the associations between sleep and fruit and vegetable consumption are not well characterized. This study aims to explore both cross-sectional and prospective associations between sleep duration and fruit and vegetable intakes in UK women. This is the first study to demonstrate the prospective association between sleep duration and fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: Cross–sectional and prospective data were obtained from the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Sleep duration was assessed by self-report of average hours slept on weekdays and weekends and diet was assessed by a 4-day food diary at baseline and follow-up (~ 4 years later). Sleep duration was categorized as short (≤6 h/d), recommended (7–9 h/d) and long (≥9 h/d). Regression analyses adjusting for age, socio-economic status, smoking, ethnicity and total energy intake were used and restricted cubic spline models were developed to explore potential non-linear associations between sleep duration and fruit and vegetable intakes. Results: In adjusted cross-sectional analyses, short sleepers had on average 17 g/d (95% CI -30 to-4, p = 0.01) and long sleepers had 25 g/d (95% CI -39 to − 12, p < 0.001) less total fruits and vegetables compared to Recommended Sleepers (RS). In adjusted prospective analyses, short sleepers had on average 85 g/d (95% CI -144 to − 26, p = 0.005) less total fruits and vegetables in comparison to RS. Restricted cubic spline models showed that the cross-sectional (p < 0.001) and prospective (p = 0.001) associations between sleep duration and fruit and vegetable intakes were non-linear with women sleeping 7–9 h/d having the highest intakes. Conclusions: Fruit and vegetable consumption differed between sleep duration categories with UK women sleeping the recommended 7–9 h/day having the highest intake of fruits and vegetables in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. These findings suggest that sleeping the recommended duration is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Sleep is an overlooked lifestyle factor in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption and more notice is vital. Further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms for these associations

    A K-ATP channel gene effect on sleep duration:from genome-wide association studies to function in Drosophila

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    <p>Humans sleep approximately a third of their lifetime. The observation that individuals with either long or short sleep duration show associations with metabolic syndrome and psychiatric disorders suggests that the length of sleep is adaptive. Although sleep duration can be influenced by photoperiod (season) and phase of entrainment (chronotype), human familial sleep disorders indicate that there is a strong genetic modulation of sleep. Therefore, we conducted high-density genome-wide association studies for sleep duration in seven European populations (N=4251). We identified an intronic variant (rs11046205; P=3.99 x 10(-8)) in the ABCC9 gene that explains approximate to 5% of the variation in sleep duration. An influence of season and chronotype on sleep duration was solely observed in the replication sample (N=5949). Meta-analysis of the associations found in a subgroup of the replication sample, chosen for season of entry and chronotype, together with the discovery results showed genome-wide significance. RNA interference knockdown experiments of the conserved ABCC9 homologue in Drosophila neurons renders flies sleepless during the first 3 h of the night. ABCC9 encodes an ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit (SUR2), serving as a sensor of intracellular energy metabolism. Molecular Psychiatry (2013) 18, 122-132; doi:10.1038/mp.2011.142; published online 22 November 2011</p>