52 research outputs found

    Equilibrium strategy and population-size effects in lowest unique bid auctions

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    In lowest unique bid auctions, NN players bid for an item. The winner is whoever places the \emph{lowest} bid, provided that it is also unique. We use a grand canonical approach to derive an analytical expression for the equilibrium distribution of strategies. We then study the properties of the solution as a function of the mean number of players, and compare them with a large dataset of internet auctions. The theory agrees with the data with striking accuracy for small population size NN, while for larger NN a qualitatively different distribution is observed. We interpret this result as the emergence of two different regimes, one in which adaptation is feasible and one in which it is not. Our results question the actual possibility of a large population to adapt and find the optimal strategy when participating in a collective game.Comment: 6 pag. - 7 figs - added Supplementary Material. Changed affiliations. Published versio

    Intrinsic Elicitation : A Model and Design Approach for Games Collecting Human Subject Data

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    Applied games are increasingly used to collect human subject data such as people’s performance or attitudes. Games a ord a motive for data provision that poses a validity threat at the same time: as players enjoy winning the game, they are motivated to provide dishonest data if this holds a strategic in-game advantage. Current work on data collection game design doesn’t address this issue. We therefore propose a theoretical model of why people provide certain data in games, the Rational Game User Model. We derive a design approach for human subject data collection games that we call Intrinsic Elicitation: data collection should be integrated into the game’s mechanics such that honest responding is the necessary, strategically optimal, and least e ortful way to pursue the game’s goal. We illustrate the value of our approach with a sample analysis of the data collection game Urbanology

    Retrospective evaluation of whole exome and genome mutation calls in 746 cancer samples

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    Funder: NCI U24CA211006Abstract: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) curated consensus somatic mutation calls using whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), respectively. Here, as part of the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium, which aggregated whole genome sequencing data from 2,658 cancers across 38 tumour types, we compare WES and WGS side-by-side from 746 TCGA samples, finding that ~80% of mutations overlap in covered exonic regions. We estimate that low variant allele fraction (VAF < 15%) and clonal heterogeneity contribute up to 68% of private WGS mutations and 71% of private WES mutations. We observe that ~30% of private WGS mutations trace to mutations identified by a single variant caller in WES consensus efforts. WGS captures both ~50% more variation in exonic regions and un-observed mutations in loci with variable GC-content. Together, our analysis highlights technological divergences between two reproducible somatic variant detection efforts

    Adapting Short-Term Mentalization-Based Therapy to ICD-11 Personality Disorder in Adolescents

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    Following the introduction of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), adolescents can now be diagnosed with a personality disorder based on severity ranging from mild to moderate to severe. This dimensional model has potential implications for treatment, as it allows clinicians and researchers to search for effective treatments targeting adolescents at different severity levels rather than offering all patients the same treatment. In this conceptual paper, we propose that the short-term mentalization-based therapy (MBT) program, originally developed to treat adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD), has potential clinical advantages for adolescents with ICD-11 personality disorder at the mild to moderate severity level. The short-term MBT program is a 5-month structured treatment approach including individual therapy, combined psychotherapy with the individual therapist also being one of the group therapists, and closed-group therapy to enhance cohesion and a feeling of security. The purpose of this paper is to make a case for the use of this format, as opposed to the traditional long-term MBT format, for adolescents with BPD. Future research should include large-scale randomized clinical trials powered to assess patient-important outcomes

    Violence and sexual abuse in childhood and adolesence

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    This study explores the effects of physical and sexual traumas in the childhood and adolescence, and how these affects the individual‚Äôs identity, self-image, and relationships. To gain a deeper understanding of this complex and sensitive topic, a qualitative methodology, heavily dependent on ethical interview conduction, led to the life stories of three anonymized individuals ‚Äď ‚ÄúFrederikke‚ÄĚ, ‚ÄúMartin‚ÄĚ, and ‚ÄúMaja‚ÄĚ ‚Äď that are thoroughly examined in this study. The interviews unveil the intricacies that unfolded within their psyches, when their boundaries were violated, either physically or sexually.A meticulous analysis of the interview transcripts, drawing upon Erik Homburger Erikson‚Äôs theory of identity development and self-image, Anne-Lise L√łvlie Schibbye‚Äôs definition of relationships, Alan Sroufe‚Äôs further development of John Bowlby‚Äôs theory on attachments, as well as references to several encyclopedic descriptions, leads to the conclusion that the traumas these subjects suffered in their youth have significantly impacted their identity development, self-image, and ability to form healthy and long-lasting relationships. It is important to acknowledge that the study encountered two major limitations. First, the study‚Äôs timeframe, limited to a single semester, may have impacted the amount of data that was collected and analyzed. Second, it proved difficult, but not impossible, to make contact and establish a trusting and safe relationship with individuals who are open to discussing this sensitive and stigmatized topic.The extracted data from the interviews could have been analyzed with different main theorists and definitions as the study‚Äôs primary key terms, which in extension could lead to various interesting and important discoveries within this field
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