368 research outputs found

    Tree-Chain: A Fast Lightweight Consensus Algorithm for IoT Applications

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    Blockchain has received tremendous attention in non-monetary applications including the Internet of Things (IoT) due to its salient features including decentralization, security, auditability, and anonymity. Most conventional blockchains rely on computationally expensive consensus algorithms, have limited throughput, and high transaction delays. In this paper, we propose tree-chain a scalable fast blockchain instantiation that introduces two levels of randomization among the validators: i) transaction level where the validator of each transaction is selected randomly based on the most significant characters of the hash function output (known as consensus code), and ii) blockchain level where validator is randomly allocated to a particular consensus code based on the hash of their public key. Tree-chain introduces parallel chain branches where each validator commits the corresponding transactions in a unique ledger. Implementation results show that tree-chain is runnable on low resource devices and incurs low processing overhead, achieving near real-time transaction settlement

    Causal Inference in Disease Spread across a Heterogeneous Social System

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    Diffusion processes are governed by external triggers and internal dynamics in complex systems. Timely and cost-effective control of infectious disease spread critically relies on uncovering the underlying diffusion mechanisms, which is challenging due to invisible causality between events and their time-evolving intensity. We infer causal relationships between infections and quantify the reflexivity of a meta-population, the level of feedback on event occurrences by its internal dynamics (likelihood of a regional outbreak triggered by previous cases). These are enabled by our new proposed model, the Latent Influence Point Process (LIPP) which models disease spread by incorporating macro-level internal dynamics of meta-populations based on human mobility. We analyse 15-year dengue cases in Queensland, Australia. From our causal inference, outbreaks are more likely driven by statewide global diffusion over time, leading to complex behavior of disease spread. In terms of reflexivity, precursory growth and symmetric decline in populous regions is attributed to slow but persistent feedback on preceding outbreaks via inter-group dynamics, while abrupt growth but sharp decline in peripheral areas is led by rapid but inconstant feedback via intra-group dynamics. Our proposed model reveals probabilistic causal relationships between discrete events based on intra- and inter-group dynamics and also covers direct and indirect diffusion processes (contact-based and vector-borne disease transmissions).Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1711.0635

    In-Network Distributed Solar Current Prediction

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    Long-term sensor network deployments demand careful power management. While managing power requires understanding the amount of energy harvestable from the local environment, current solar prediction methods rely only on recent local history, which makes them susceptible to high variability. In this paper, we present a model and algorithms for distributed solar current prediction, based on multiple linear regression to predict future solar current based on local, in-situ climatic and solar measurements. These algorithms leverage spatial information from neighbors and adapt to the changing local conditions not captured by global climatic information. We implement these algorithms on our Fleck platform and run a 7-week-long experiment validating our work. In analyzing our results from this experiment, we determined that computing our model requires an increased energy expenditure of 4.5mJ over simpler models (on the order of 10^{-7}% of the harvested energy) to gain a prediction improvement of 39.7%.Comment: 28 pages, accepted at TOSN and awaiting publicatio

    Guiding Ebola Patients to Suitable Health Facilities: An SMS-based Approach

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    We propose to utilize mobile phone technology as a vehicle for people to report their symptoms and to receive immediate feedback about the health services readily available, and for predicting spatial disease outbreak risk. Once symptoms are extracted from the patients text message, they undergo complex classification, pattern matching and prediction to recommend the nearest suitable health service. The added benefit of this approach is that it enables health care facilities to anticipate arrival of new potential Ebola cases

    MOF-BC: A Memory Optimized and Flexible BlockChain for Large Scale Networks

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    BlockChain (BC) immutability ensures BC resilience against modification or removal of the stored data. In large scale networks like the Internet of Things (IoT), however, this feature significantly increases BC storage size and raises privacy challenges. In this paper, we propose a Memory Optimized and Flexible BC (MOF-BC) that enables the IoT users and service providers to remove or summarize their transactions and age their data and to exercise the "right to be forgotten". To increase privacy, a user may employ multiple keys for different transactions. To allow for the removal of stored transactions, all keys would need to be stored which complicates key management and storage. MOF-BC introduces the notion of a Generator Verifier (GV) which is a signed hash of a Generator Verifier Secret (GVS). The GV changes for each transaction to provide privacy yet is signed by a unique key, thus minimizing the information that needs to be stored. A flexible transaction fee model and a reward mechanism is proposed to incentivize users to participate in optimizing memory consumption. Qualitative security and privacy analysis demonstrates that MOF-BC is resilient against several security attacks. Evaluation results show that MOF-BC decreases BC memory consumption by up to 25\% and the user cost by more than two orders of magnitude compared to conventional BC instantiations

    Genetic Programming for Smart Phone Personalisation

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    Personalisation in smart phones requires adaptability to dynamic context based on user mobility, application usage and sensor inputs. Current personalisation approaches, which rely on static logic that is developed a priori, do not provide sufficient adaptability to dynamic and unexpected context. This paper proposes genetic programming (GP), which can evolve program logic in realtime, as an online learning method to deal with the highly dynamic context in smart phone personalisation. We introduce the concept of collaborative smart phone personalisation through the GP Island Model, in order to exploit shared context among co-located phone users and reduce convergence time. We implement these concepts on real smartphones to demonstrate the capability of personalisation through GP and to explore the benefits of the Island Model. Our empirical evaluations on two example applications confirm that the Island Model can reduce convergence time by up to two-thirds over standalone GP personalisation.Comment: 43 pages, 11 figure