24 research outputs found

    Image_2_Genome-wide survey of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CPKs) in five Brassica species and identification of CPKs induced by Plasmodiophora brassicae in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus.jpeg

    No full text
    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase that exists in plants and some protozoa, possessing Ca2+ sensing functions and kinase activity. To better reveal the roles that Brassica CPKs played during plant response to stresses, five Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (B. rapa), Brassica nigra (B. nigra), Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea), Brassica juncea (B. juncea), and Brassica napus (B. napus) were selected and analyzed. In total, 51 BraCPK, 56 BniCPK, 56 BolCPK, 88 BjuCPK, and 107 BnaCPK genes were identified genome wide and phylogenetics, chromosomal mapping, collinearity, promoter analysis, and biological stress analysis were conducted. The results showed that a typical CPK gene was constituted by a long exon and tandem short exons. They were unevenly distributed on most chromosomes except chromosome A08 in B. napus and B. rapa, and almost all CPK genes were located on regions of high gene density as non-tandem form. The promoter regions of BraCPKs, BolCPKs, and BnaCPKs possessed at least three types of cis-elements, among which the abscisic acid responsive-related accounted for the largest proportion. In the phylogenetic tree, CPKs were clustered into four primary groups, among which group I contained the most CPK genes while group IV contained the fewest. Some clades, like AT5G23580.1(CPK12) and AT2G31500.1 (CPK24) contained much more gene members than others, indicating a possibility that gene expansion occurred during evolution. Furthermore, 4 BraCPKs, 14 BolCPKs, and 31 BnaCPKs involved in the Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae) defense response in resistant (R) or susceptible (S) materials were derived from online databases, leading to the discovery that some R-specific induced CPKs, such as BnaC02g08720D, BnaA03g03800D, and BolC04g018270.2J.m1 might be ideal candidate genes for P. brassicae resistant research. Overall, these results provide valuable information for research on the function and evolution of CDK genes.</p

    Image_4_Genome-wide survey of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CPKs) in five Brassica species and identification of CPKs induced by Plasmodiophora brassicae in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus.jpeg

    No full text
    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase that exists in plants and some protozoa, possessing Ca2+ sensing functions and kinase activity. To better reveal the roles that Brassica CPKs played during plant response to stresses, five Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (B. rapa), Brassica nigra (B. nigra), Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea), Brassica juncea (B. juncea), and Brassica napus (B. napus) were selected and analyzed. In total, 51 BraCPK, 56 BniCPK, 56 BolCPK, 88 BjuCPK, and 107 BnaCPK genes were identified genome wide and phylogenetics, chromosomal mapping, collinearity, promoter analysis, and biological stress analysis were conducted. The results showed that a typical CPK gene was constituted by a long exon and tandem short exons. They were unevenly distributed on most chromosomes except chromosome A08 in B. napus and B. rapa, and almost all CPK genes were located on regions of high gene density as non-tandem form. The promoter regions of BraCPKs, BolCPKs, and BnaCPKs possessed at least three types of cis-elements, among which the abscisic acid responsive-related accounted for the largest proportion. In the phylogenetic tree, CPKs were clustered into four primary groups, among which group I contained the most CPK genes while group IV contained the fewest. Some clades, like AT5G23580.1(CPK12) and AT2G31500.1 (CPK24) contained much more gene members than others, indicating a possibility that gene expansion occurred during evolution. Furthermore, 4 BraCPKs, 14 BolCPKs, and 31 BnaCPKs involved in the Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae) defense response in resistant (R) or susceptible (S) materials were derived from online databases, leading to the discovery that some R-specific induced CPKs, such as BnaC02g08720D, BnaA03g03800D, and BolC04g018270.2J.m1 might be ideal candidate genes for P. brassicae resistant research. Overall, these results provide valuable information for research on the function and evolution of CDK genes.</p

    Image_1_Genome-wide survey of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CPKs) in five Brassica species and identification of CPKs induced by Plasmodiophora brassicae in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus.jpeg

    No full text
    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase that exists in plants and some protozoa, possessing Ca2+ sensing functions and kinase activity. To better reveal the roles that Brassica CPKs played during plant response to stresses, five Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (B. rapa), Brassica nigra (B. nigra), Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea), Brassica juncea (B. juncea), and Brassica napus (B. napus) were selected and analyzed. In total, 51 BraCPK, 56 BniCPK, 56 BolCPK, 88 BjuCPK, and 107 BnaCPK genes were identified genome wide and phylogenetics, chromosomal mapping, collinearity, promoter analysis, and biological stress analysis were conducted. The results showed that a typical CPK gene was constituted by a long exon and tandem short exons. They were unevenly distributed on most chromosomes except chromosome A08 in B. napus and B. rapa, and almost all CPK genes were located on regions of high gene density as non-tandem form. The promoter regions of BraCPKs, BolCPKs, and BnaCPKs possessed at least three types of cis-elements, among which the abscisic acid responsive-related accounted for the largest proportion. In the phylogenetic tree, CPKs were clustered into four primary groups, among which group I contained the most CPK genes while group IV contained the fewest. Some clades, like AT5G23580.1(CPK12) and AT2G31500.1 (CPK24) contained much more gene members than others, indicating a possibility that gene expansion occurred during evolution. Furthermore, 4 BraCPKs, 14 BolCPKs, and 31 BnaCPKs involved in the Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae) defense response in resistant (R) or susceptible (S) materials were derived from online databases, leading to the discovery that some R-specific induced CPKs, such as BnaC02g08720D, BnaA03g03800D, and BolC04g018270.2J.m1 might be ideal candidate genes for P. brassicae resistant research. Overall, these results provide valuable information for research on the function and evolution of CDK genes.</p

    Table_1_Genome-wide survey of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CPKs) in five Brassica species and identification of CPKs induced by Plasmodiophora brassicae in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus.xlsx

    No full text
    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase that exists in plants and some protozoa, possessing Ca2+ sensing functions and kinase activity. To better reveal the roles that Brassica CPKs played during plant response to stresses, five Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (B. rapa), Brassica nigra (B. nigra), Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea), Brassica juncea (B. juncea), and Brassica napus (B. napus) were selected and analyzed. In total, 51 BraCPK, 56 BniCPK, 56 BolCPK, 88 BjuCPK, and 107 BnaCPK genes were identified genome wide and phylogenetics, chromosomal mapping, collinearity, promoter analysis, and biological stress analysis were conducted. The results showed that a typical CPK gene was constituted by a long exon and tandem short exons. They were unevenly distributed on most chromosomes except chromosome A08 in B. napus and B. rapa, and almost all CPK genes were located on regions of high gene density as non-tandem form. The promoter regions of BraCPKs, BolCPKs, and BnaCPKs possessed at least three types of cis-elements, among which the abscisic acid responsive-related accounted for the largest proportion. In the phylogenetic tree, CPKs were clustered into four primary groups, among which group I contained the most CPK genes while group IV contained the fewest. Some clades, like AT5G23580.1(CPK12) and AT2G31500.1 (CPK24) contained much more gene members than others, indicating a possibility that gene expansion occurred during evolution. Furthermore, 4 BraCPKs, 14 BolCPKs, and 31 BnaCPKs involved in the Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae) defense response in resistant (R) or susceptible (S) materials were derived from online databases, leading to the discovery that some R-specific induced CPKs, such as BnaC02g08720D, BnaA03g03800D, and BolC04g018270.2J.m1 might be ideal candidate genes for P. brassicae resistant research. Overall, these results provide valuable information for research on the function and evolution of CDK genes.</p

    Image_6_Genome-wide survey of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CPKs) in five Brassica species and identification of CPKs induced by Plasmodiophora brassicae in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus.jpeg

    No full text
    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase that exists in plants and some protozoa, possessing Ca2+ sensing functions and kinase activity. To better reveal the roles that Brassica CPKs played during plant response to stresses, five Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (B. rapa), Brassica nigra (B. nigra), Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea), Brassica juncea (B. juncea), and Brassica napus (B. napus) were selected and analyzed. In total, 51 BraCPK, 56 BniCPK, 56 BolCPK, 88 BjuCPK, and 107 BnaCPK genes were identified genome wide and phylogenetics, chromosomal mapping, collinearity, promoter analysis, and biological stress analysis were conducted. The results showed that a typical CPK gene was constituted by a long exon and tandem short exons. They were unevenly distributed on most chromosomes except chromosome A08 in B. napus and B. rapa, and almost all CPK genes were located on regions of high gene density as non-tandem form. The promoter regions of BraCPKs, BolCPKs, and BnaCPKs possessed at least three types of cis-elements, among which the abscisic acid responsive-related accounted for the largest proportion. In the phylogenetic tree, CPKs were clustered into four primary groups, among which group I contained the most CPK genes while group IV contained the fewest. Some clades, like AT5G23580.1(CPK12) and AT2G31500.1 (CPK24) contained much more gene members than others, indicating a possibility that gene expansion occurred during evolution. Furthermore, 4 BraCPKs, 14 BolCPKs, and 31 BnaCPKs involved in the Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae) defense response in resistant (R) or susceptible (S) materials were derived from online databases, leading to the discovery that some R-specific induced CPKs, such as BnaC02g08720D, BnaA03g03800D, and BolC04g018270.2J.m1 might be ideal candidate genes for P. brassicae resistant research. Overall, these results provide valuable information for research on the function and evolution of CDK genes.</p

    ML phylogenetic tree for Methyltransf_2 domains in COMT proteins.

    No full text
    <p>The phylogenetic tree derived by the ML method with bootstrap analysis (1000 replicates) from alignment of amino acid sequences of Methyltransferase domains predicted in COMT proteins from <i>Arabidopsis</i>, <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>, <i>B</i>. <i>oleracea</i>, <i>B</i>. <i>napus</i>, and outgroup using MEGA 6.0 program.</p

    Image_5_Genome-wide survey of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CPKs) in five Brassica species and identification of CPKs induced by Plasmodiophora brassicae in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus.jpeg

    No full text
    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase that exists in plants and some protozoa, possessing Ca2+ sensing functions and kinase activity. To better reveal the roles that Brassica CPKs played during plant response to stresses, five Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (B. rapa), Brassica nigra (B. nigra), Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea), Brassica juncea (B. juncea), and Brassica napus (B. napus) were selected and analyzed. In total, 51 BraCPK, 56 BniCPK, 56 BolCPK, 88 BjuCPK, and 107 BnaCPK genes were identified genome wide and phylogenetics, chromosomal mapping, collinearity, promoter analysis, and biological stress analysis were conducted. The results showed that a typical CPK gene was constituted by a long exon and tandem short exons. They were unevenly distributed on most chromosomes except chromosome A08 in B. napus and B. rapa, and almost all CPK genes were located on regions of high gene density as non-tandem form. The promoter regions of BraCPKs, BolCPKs, and BnaCPKs possessed at least three types of cis-elements, among which the abscisic acid responsive-related accounted for the largest proportion. In the phylogenetic tree, CPKs were clustered into four primary groups, among which group I contained the most CPK genes while group IV contained the fewest. Some clades, like AT5G23580.1(CPK12) and AT2G31500.1 (CPK24) contained much more gene members than others, indicating a possibility that gene expansion occurred during evolution. Furthermore, 4 BraCPKs, 14 BolCPKs, and 31 BnaCPKs involved in the Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae) defense response in resistant (R) or susceptible (S) materials were derived from online databases, leading to the discovery that some R-specific induced CPKs, such as BnaC02g08720D, BnaA03g03800D, and BolC04g018270.2J.m1 might be ideal candidate genes for P. brassicae resistant research. Overall, these results provide valuable information for research on the function and evolution of CDK genes.</p

    Image_3_Genome-wide survey of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CPKs) in five Brassica species and identification of CPKs induced by Plasmodiophora brassicae in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus.jpeg

    No full text
    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase that exists in plants and some protozoa, possessing Ca2+ sensing functions and kinase activity. To better reveal the roles that Brassica CPKs played during plant response to stresses, five Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (B. rapa), Brassica nigra (B. nigra), Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea), Brassica juncea (B. juncea), and Brassica napus (B. napus) were selected and analyzed. In total, 51 BraCPK, 56 BniCPK, 56 BolCPK, 88 BjuCPK, and 107 BnaCPK genes were identified genome wide and phylogenetics, chromosomal mapping, collinearity, promoter analysis, and biological stress analysis were conducted. The results showed that a typical CPK gene was constituted by a long exon and tandem short exons. They were unevenly distributed on most chromosomes except chromosome A08 in B. napus and B. rapa, and almost all CPK genes were located on regions of high gene density as non-tandem form. The promoter regions of BraCPKs, BolCPKs, and BnaCPKs possessed at least three types of cis-elements, among which the abscisic acid responsive-related accounted for the largest proportion. In the phylogenetic tree, CPKs were clustered into four primary groups, among which group I contained the most CPK genes while group IV contained the fewest. Some clades, like AT5G23580.1(CPK12) and AT2G31500.1 (CPK24) contained much more gene members than others, indicating a possibility that gene expansion occurred during evolution. Furthermore, 4 BraCPKs, 14 BolCPKs, and 31 BnaCPKs involved in the Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae) defense response in resistant (R) or susceptible (S) materials were derived from online databases, leading to the discovery that some R-specific induced CPKs, such as BnaC02g08720D, BnaA03g03800D, and BolC04g018270.2J.m1 might be ideal candidate genes for P. brassicae resistant research. Overall, these results provide valuable information for research on the function and evolution of CDK genes.</p

    Table_2_Genome-wide survey of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CPKs) in five Brassica species and identification of CPKs induced by Plasmodiophora brassicae in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus.xls

    No full text
    Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase that exists in plants and some protozoa, possessing Ca2+ sensing functions and kinase activity. To better reveal the roles that Brassica CPKs played during plant response to stresses, five Brassica species, namely Brassica rapa (B. rapa), Brassica nigra (B. nigra), Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea), Brassica juncea (B. juncea), and Brassica napus (B. napus) were selected and analyzed. In total, 51 BraCPK, 56 BniCPK, 56 BolCPK, 88 BjuCPK, and 107 BnaCPK genes were identified genome wide and phylogenetics, chromosomal mapping, collinearity, promoter analysis, and biological stress analysis were conducted. The results showed that a typical CPK gene was constituted by a long exon and tandem short exons. They were unevenly distributed on most chromosomes except chromosome A08 in B. napus and B. rapa, and almost all CPK genes were located on regions of high gene density as non-tandem form. The promoter regions of BraCPKs, BolCPKs, and BnaCPKs possessed at least three types of cis-elements, among which the abscisic acid responsive-related accounted for the largest proportion. In the phylogenetic tree, CPKs were clustered into four primary groups, among which group I contained the most CPK genes while group IV contained the fewest. Some clades, like AT5G23580.1(CPK12) and AT2G31500.1 (CPK24) contained much more gene members than others, indicating a possibility that gene expansion occurred during evolution. Furthermore, 4 BraCPKs, 14 BolCPKs, and 31 BnaCPKs involved in the Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae) defense response in resistant (R) or susceptible (S) materials were derived from online databases, leading to the discovery that some R-specific induced CPKs, such as BnaC02g08720D, BnaA03g03800D, and BolC04g018270.2J.m1 might be ideal candidate genes for P. brassicae resistant research. Overall, these results provide valuable information for research on the function and evolution of CDK genes.</p

    Cloning and Phylogenetic Analysis of <i>Brassica napus</i> L. <i>Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase 1</i> Gene Family and Its Expression Pattern under Drought Stress

    No full text
    <div><p>For many plants, regulating lignin content and composition to improve lodging resistance is a crucial issue. Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a lignin monomer-specific enzyme that controls S subunit synthesis in plant vascular cell walls. Here, we identified 12 <i>BnCOMT1</i> gene homologues, namely <i>BnCOMT1-1</i> to <i>BnCOMT1-12</i>. Ten of 12 genes were composed of four highly conserved exons and three weakly conserved introns. The length of intron I, in particular, showed enormous diversification. Intron I of homologous <i>BnCOMT1</i> genes showed high identity with counterpart genes in <i>Brassica rapa</i> and <i>Brassica oleracea</i>, and intron I from positional close genes in the same chromosome were relatively highly conserved. A phylogenetic analysis suggested that <i>COMT</i> genes experience considerable diversification and conservation in <i>Brassicaceae</i> species, and some <i>COMT1</i> genes are unique in the <i>Brassica</i> genus. Our expression studies indicated that <i>BnCOMT1</i> genes were differentially expressed in different tissues, with <i>BnCOMT1-4</i>, <i>BnCOMT1-5</i>, <i>BnCOMT1-8</i>, and <i>BnCOMT1-10</i> exhibiting stem specificity. These four <i>BnCOMT1</i> genes were expressed at all developmental periods (the bud, early flowering, late flowering and mature stages) and their expression level peaked in the early flowering stage in the stem. Drought stress augmented and accelerated lignin accumulation in high-lignin plants but delayed it in low-lignin plants. The expression levels of <i>BnCOMT1s</i> were generally reduced in water deficit condition. The desynchrony of the accumulation processes of total lignin and <i>BnCOMT1</i>s transcripts in most growth stages indicated that <i>BnCOMT1s</i> could be responsible for the synthesis of a specific subunit of lignin or that they participate in other pathways such as the melatonin biosynthesis pathway.</p></div
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