16 research outputs found

    Encapsulation of Monodisperse Microdroplets in Nanofibers through a Microfluidic–Electrospinning Hybrid Method

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    Fibers with droplets encapsulated in them could build bridges between a 0D dispersed structure and a 1D continuous wire and thus provide optimal solutions requiring high surface-to-volume ratio and strong mechanical properties. However, current methods are mostly focusing on the architectures with the size of droplets smaller than that of fibers; the relatively thick barrier of fibers usually limits the rate of diffusion from inner droplets to the outer environment. Here, we report a hybrid method combining microfluidics and electrospinning to fabricate nanofibers with microdroplets encapsulated in them. Monodisperse microdroplets with controllable sizes from 36 to 95 μm are generated through microfluidic flow-focusing and split into a string of smaller droplets from 1 to 3 μm, respectively, during the electrospinning stretching. The size of encapsulated droplets could be tuned by controlling the flow rate ratio during the microfluidic process, and the shape of that could be varied by changing the viscosity of encapsulated solution. This marriage of microfluidics and electrospinning could be applied to produce a nanofiber-based moisture barrier and drug carrier, also providing efficient tools to study the under-electric-field stretching and splitting of droplets trapped in the polymer network

    Direct Observation of Magnetic Domain and Magnetization Reversal on Prussian Blue-Based Magnetic Films

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    Knowledge of the magnetic domain is indispensable for understanding the magnetostatic properties of magnets. However, to date, the magnetic domain has not yet been reported in the field of molecule-based magnets. Herein, we study the magnetic domains of molecule-based magnets. Two magnetic films of iron/chromium hexacyanidochromate FexCr1–x[Cr(CN)6]2/3·5H2O (x = 0; Film 1 and x = 0.2; Film 2) were prepared for investigation. The temperature evolution of surface magnetization was measured using magnetic force microscopy. Film 1 showed a magnetic domain below Curie temperature (TC) and its positive-magnetic polarization increased monotonously with decreasing temperature, while Film 2 showed positive magnetic polarization below TC and switches from positive to negative magnetization through a demagnetization state at 146 K. This study originally reports the temperature variation of the magnetization state at the magnetization reversal. The magnetic domains appeared as a maze pattern with an approximate domain size of one-to-several micrometers. This work shows that research on molecule-based magnets can be expanded from magnetochemistry to the magnetostatic engineering of bulk magnets, molecule-based magnetostatic engineering

    The Hippo pathway is responsible for S100A7 induction in well differentiated cervical and pharyngeal SCC cells.

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    <p>(a, b) Overexpression of LATS1 in normal attached HCC94 (a, left), FaDu (a, right), SiHa (b, left) and H226 (b, right) cells. Anti-Flag tag antibody was used to judge the transfection efficiency. HCC94-WT was used as the positive control. β-actin was used as a loading control (c, d) Depletion of LATS1 using siRNA attenuates S100A7 in suspended or dense HCC94 (c) and FaDu (d) cells. siLATS1+S48h (or D48h) indicates that cells are cultured in suspension (or dense) for 48 h after silencing of LATS1. (e, f) Silencing MST1 in HCC94 (e) and FaDu (f) cells cultured in suspension or dense. siMST1+S48h (or D48h) indicates that cells are cultured in suspension (or dense) for 48 h after losing of MST1. GAPDH was used as a loading control.</p

    The precautionary principle and genetically modified organisms: a bone of contention between European institutions and member states

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    Theoretical thesis.Bibliography: pages 75-86.Introduction -- Chapter I. The precautionary principle -- Chapter II. The precautionary principle and genetically modified organisms under the European legal framework -- Chapter III. The precautionary principle and genetically modified organisms : analysis of three seminal cases of the European Court of Justice (2003-2011) -- Chapter IV. A high level of protection for health and the environment vs free circluation of GMOs on the European market : interests in conflict -- Bibliography.This dissertation examines how the Precautionary Principle, as an internationally recognised concept enshrined in a range of legal instruments, has been applied to provide a mechanism for protection of the environment and health in response to the introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in Europe. It examines how the European Court of Justice substantively handled the risk assessment phase across three seminal cases between 2003 and 2011 in which Member States had failed in their attempt to trigger the Precautionary Principle in order to uphold a ban or suspension of the cultivation or sale of products derived from GMOs in their territory. The analysis of these judgements suggests that the Court has applied a narrow approach to the evidence provided by national governments during the risk assessment stage, and has thereby limited the potential for precautionary measures by Member States to be upheld by the Court. This outcome reflects a ‘weak’ application of the Precautionary Principle by the Court in contrast with the ‘strong’ interpretation implied by the European legal and policy framework and objections of Member States.Mode of access: World wide web1 online resource (86 pages

    TEAD1 mediates YAP-dependent S100A7 expression.

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    <p>(a) Western blot analyses for S100A7 expression after TEAD1 silencing in normal attached HCC94 cells. (b) The mRNA expression of <i>TEAD1</i>, <i>CTGF</i>, <i>CYR61</i> and <i>S100A7</i> is examined using qRT-PCR. H: HCC94 cells. Error bar, SD of three different experiments. <i>*P<0</i>.<i>05</i>, **<i>P</i><0.01; <i>t-test</i>. (c, d) Overexpression of YAP-WT and mutant activated YAP-S94A in normal attached HCC94 (c) and FaDu (d) cells. Anti-Flag tag antibody was used to judge the transfection efficiency. β-actin was used as a loading control.</p

    DNA Computation-Modulated Self-Assembly of Stimuli-Responsive Plasmonic Nanogap Antennas for Correlated Multiplexed Molecular Imaging

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    Nanogap antennas with strong electromagnetic fields of the “hot spot” in the gap region of two adjacent particles that can significantly improve the optical properties of fluorophores hold great potential for ultrasensitive bioanalysis. Herein, a DNA computation-mediated self-assembly of Au NBP dimer-based plasmonic nanogap antennas was designed for imaging of intracellular correlated dual disease biomarkers. It is worth noting that with the benefit from the electromagnetic fields of the “hot spot” in the gap region and strand displacement amplification, the fluorescence intensity can be enhanced ∼14.7-fold by Au NBP dimer-based plasmonic nanogap antennas. In addition, the AND-gate sensing mechanism was confirmed through monitoring the response of three designed nAP-PH1, m-PH1, and PH1 probes, the fluorescence recovery in different cell lines (Hela and L02), and inhibitor-treated cells, respectively. Furthermore, thanks to the “dual keys” activation design, such an “AND-gate” sensing manner can be used for ultrasensitive correlated multiplexed molecular imaging, demonstrating its feasible prospect in correlated multiplexed molecular imaging

    pH Programmed Optical Sensor Arrays for Cancer Plasma Straightforward Discrimination Based on Protein-Responsive Patterns

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    Optical cross-reactive sensor arrays inspired by the mammalian olfactory system that can realize straightforward discrimination of plasma from cancer patients hold great potential for point-of-care diseases diagnostics. Herein, a pH programmed fluorescence sensor array based on protein-responsive patterns was designed for straightforward discrimination of different types of cancer plasma. It is worth noting that plasma discrimination can be realized only by programming one nanomaterial using different pH values, which greatly simplifies the programmable design of the sensor array, making it an important highlight of this work. In addition, the mechanism of the pH programmed fluorescence sensor array for protein responsiveness was systematically investigated through molecular docking simulation, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and fluorescence lifetime experiments. Most importantly, not only can the differences between plasma from healthy people and and from patients with different cancer species including gastric cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer be discriminated by this pH programmed fluorescence sensor array, but also the blind test of unknown plasma samples can be well identified with 100% accuracy, indicating its promising prospect in clinical application

    The Characteristics and Function of S100A7 Induction in Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Heterogeneity, Promotion of Cell Proliferation and Suppression of Differentiation

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    <div><p>S100A7 is highly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and is related to the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. However, its characteristic and function in SCC is not very known. In this present study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of S100A7 in 452 SCC specimens, including the lung, esophagus, oral cavity, skin, cervix, bladder, and three SCC cell lines. We found that S100A7-positive staining showed significant heterogeneity in six types of SCC specimen and three SCC cell lines. Further examination found that S100A7-positive cells and its expression at mRNA and protein levels could be induced in HCC94, FaDu, and A-431 cells both in vitro and in vivo using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. Notably, the upregulation of squamous differentiation markers, including keratin-4, keratin-13, TG-1, and involucrin, also accompanied S100A7 induction, and a similar staining pattern of S100A7 and keratin-13 was found in HCC94 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Further study revealed that the overexpression of S100A7 significantly increased proliferation and inhibited squamous differentiation in A-431 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, silencing S100A7 inhibited cell growth and survival and increased the expression of keratin-4, keratin-13, TG-1, and involucrin in HCC94 cells. Therefore, these results demonstrate that S100A7 displays heterogeneous and inducible characteristic in SCC and also provide novel evidence that S100A7 acts as a dual regulator in promoting proliferation and suppressing squamous differentiation of SCC.</p></div

    The expression of S100A7 in SCC tissues.

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    <p>SCC and normal tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry with specific anti-S100A7 antibody in lung (A, M); esophagus (B, N); cervix (C, O); bladder (D, P); oral cavity (E, Q); skin (F, R). The corresponding types of SCC tissues were also examined by immunohistochemistry with nonspecific IgG (G-L). Arrowheads indicate the positive staining of S100A7 and the asterisks indicate the keratinizing areas.</p
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