28 research outputs found

    DataSheet_1_Transcriptomics-based analysis of genes related to lead stress and their expression in the roots of Pogonatherum crinitum.docx

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    Revealing plants’ tolerance and transport genes to heavy metal stress play an important role in exploring the potential of phytoremediation. Taking the heavy metal lead (Pb) hyperaccumulator plant Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb.) Kunth as the research object, a hydroponic simulation stress experiment was set up to determine the physiological indicators such as antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the roots of P. crinitum under different Pb concentrations (0, 300, 500, 1000, 2000 mg·L-1). RNA-Seq was performed, the Unigenes obtained by transcriptome sequencing were enriched and annotated by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, and the differential expression genes (DEGs) of root were screened and verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results are as follows: with the increase of Pb concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbic acid (AsA) content increased. Peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and ascorbic acid–glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycles showed low promotion with high inhibition. A total of 38.21 Gb of bases were obtained by transcriptome sequencing, and the base quality of each sample reached Q20 and Q30, accounting for 90%, making the sequencing results reliable. Combined with transcriptome sequencing, functional annotation, and qRT-PCR validation results, 17 root Pb-tolerant genes of P. crinitum were screened out, which were related to antioxidation, transportation, and transcription functions. Moreover, qRT-PCR verification results under different Pb stress concentrations were consistent with the transcriptome sequencing results and changes in physiological indicators. In brief, the root of P. crinitum can adapt to the Pb stress environment by up-regulating the expression of related genes to regulate the physiological characteristics.</p

    One representative 1-dimensional 500 MHz <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectrum of metabolite extracts of the leaf tissue from <i>S.</i><i>salsa</i> in control group using extraction solvent system of methanol/water (1/1).

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    <p>Metabolite assignments: (1) branched chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine and valine, (2) ethanol, (3) threonine, (4) alanine, (5) acetate, (6) glutamate, (7) glutamine, (8) succinate, (9) malate, (10) aspartate, (11) asparagine, (12) malonate, (13) choline, (14) phosphocholine, (15) betaine, (16) glycine, (17) fructose, (18) glucose, (19) unknown (5.39 ppm) and (20) fumarate.</p

    Temporal patterns of soil respiration and environmental factors among sites.

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    <p>(A), daily means of net radiation and soil temperature (Tsoil) at 10 cm depth; (B), daily means of soil water content (SWC) at 10 cm and 20 cm depth and precipitation; (C), averaged shoot and root biomass of <i>Phragmites australis</i> and <i>Suaeda salsa</i>; (D), daily means of soil respiration (SR). Error bars represent ± SE.</p

    Relationships between average monthly soil respiration and environmental factors among sites.

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    <p>Shoot biomass (A), root biomass (B), litter biomass (C), SOC (D), total C (E), and total N (F) of three adjacent vegetation types (<i>Phragmites australis</i>, <i>Suaeda salsa</i> and bare soil sites). Bars represent standard errors of the means. One point represents the average soil respiration and average environmental factors of each patch during one month of measurement. Closed circles (•) represent <i>Phragmites australis</i> community, open circles (○) represent <i>Suaeda salsa</i> community, and closed triangles (▴) represent bare soil site.</p

    Values of coefficients <i>a</i> and <i>b</i> of the Eq. (), the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (<i>Q</i><sub>10</sub>) and their one-way ANOVA test among different vegetation patches during the growing season in a estuary wetland.

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    <p><i>a</i>, <i>b</i> are coefficients of the Eq. (), <i>Q</i><sub>10</sub> is the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (), <i>r</i><sup>2</sup> is the determinant coefficient. n is the number of samples data. Numbers in brackets represent the standard error of the mean. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare <i>a</i>, <i>b</i>, and <i>Q</i><sub>10</sub> values among different vegetation patches (n = 3). Different letters indicate significant difference (<i>P</i><0.05) among different vegetation patches.</p

    Expression levels of eleven genes in leaf tissues of <i>Suaeda salsa</i> from control, Hg<sup>2+</sup> (20 µg L<sup>−1</sup>), salinity (NaCl, 500 mM) and Hg<sup>2+</sup>+salinity-treated groups after exposure for 30 days.

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    <p>Data (<i>n</i> = 6) were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Significant difference between control and exposed groups was tested by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s test and indicated by *(<i>P</i><0.05) and **(<i>P</i><0.01).</p

    Metabolite concentrations (µmol g<sup>−1</sup> wet tissue) in leaf tissues of <i>S. salsa</i> exposed to Hg<sup>2+</sup> (20 µg L<sup>−1</sup>), salinity (NaCl, 500 mM) and combined Hg<sup>2+</sup> and salinity.

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    <p>Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (<i>n</i> = 6).</p>a<p>Statistical significances (<i>P</i><0.05,<sup>*</sup>and <i>P</i><0.01,<sup>**</sup>) between control and heavy metal-exposed <i>S. salsa</i> samples were determined by one-way ANOVA.</p>b<p>s = singlet, d = doublet, dd = double doublet, t = triplet, m = multiplet, ABX = complex multiplet involving 2 protons (A and B) and a heavy atom (X).</p

    The list of primers used for the determination of internal control and quantification of gene expressions by qRT-PCR.

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    <p>The list of primers used for the determination of internal control and quantification of gene expressions by qRT-PCR.</p

    Number of protein spots from <i>S.</i><i>salsa</i> samples (A) and the differentially expressed proteins in <i>S. salsa</i> from Hg<sup>2+</sup> (20 µg L<sup>−1</sup>), salinity (NaCl, 500 mM) and Hg<sup>2+</sup>+salinity (B).

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    <p>Number of protein spots from <i>S.</i><i>salsa</i> samples (A) and the differentially expressed proteins in <i>S. salsa</i> from Hg<sup>2+</sup> (20 µg L<sup>−1</sup>), salinity (NaCl, 500 mM) and Hg<sup>2+</sup>+salinity (B).</p
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