28,326 research outputs found

    Factoring Predicate Argument and Scope Semantics : underspecified Semantics with LTAG

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    In this paper we propose a compositional semantics for lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar (LTAG). Tree-local multicomponent derivations allow separation of the semantic contribution of a lexical item into one component contributing to the predicate argument structure and a second component contributing to scope semantics. Based on this idea a syntax-semantics interface is presented where the compositional semantics depends only on the derivation structure. It is shown that the derivation structure (and indirectly the locality of derivations) allows an appropriate amount of underspecification. This is illustrated by investigating underspecified representations for quantifier scope ambiguities and related phenomena such as adjunct scope and island constraints

    A Processing Model for Free Word Order Languages

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    Like many verb-final languages, Germn displays considerable word-order freedom: there is no syntactic constraint on the ordering of the nominal arguments of a verb, as long as the verb remains in final position. This effect is referred to as ``scrambling'', and is interpreted in transformational frameworks as leftward movement of the arguments. Furthermore, arguments from an embedded clause may move out of their clause; this effect is referred to as ``long-distance scrambling''. While scrambling has recently received considerable attention in the syntactic literature, the status of long-distance scrambling has only rarely been addressed. The reason for this is the problematic status of the data: not only is long-distance scrambling highly dependent on pragmatic context, it also is strongly subject to degradation due to processing constraints. As in the case of center-embedding, it is not immediately clear whether to assume that observed unacceptability of highly complex sentences is due to grammatical restrictions, or whether we should assume that the competence grammar does not place any restrictions on scrambling (and that, therefore, all such sentences are in fact grammatical), and the unacceptability of some (or most) of the grammatically possible word orders is due to processing limitations. In this paper, we will argue for the second view by presenting a processing model for German.Comment: 23 pages, uuencoded compressed ps file. In {\em Perspectives on Sentence Processing}, C. Clifton, Jr., L. Frazier and K. Rayner, editors. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 199

    Disambiguation of Super Parts of Speech (or Supertags): Almost Parsing

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    In a lexicalized grammar formalism such as Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar (LTAG), each lexical item is associated with at least one elementary structure (supertag) that localizes syntactic and semantic dependencies. Thus a parser for a lexicalized grammar must search a large set of supertags to choose the right ones to combine for the parse of the sentence. We present techniques for disambiguating supertags using local information such as lexical preference and local lexical dependencies. The similarity between LTAG and Dependency grammars is exploited in the dependency model of supertag disambiguation. The performance results for various models of supertag disambiguation such as unigram, trigram and dependency-based models are presented.Comment: ps file. 8 page

    Marine biodiversity and the conservation of the important marine organisms

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    The conservation of biological diversity, its sustainable use and the equitable sharing of its benefits are the main objectives of the convention on Biological Diversity. It seems that human activities are the immediate causes for the loss of biological diversity and the solutions and remedies are lying in the human behaviour. The term conservation and protection covers a large variety of practices. They may be used interchangeable or with different meanings depending on the situation. This makes lot of confusion to the debate. But in strict sense conservation is an approach that considers the long term variability of ecosystems within the context of resource and environmental projects. Conservation involves a concept of protection that does not prevent humans from intervening in natural processes. The term protection is reserved for operations aimed explicitly at safeguarding environments or species endangered by human activities
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