17,962 research outputs found

    Quasi-spherical gravitational collapse and the role of initial data, anisotropy and inhomogeneity

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    In this paper, the role of anisotropy and inhomogeneity has been studied in quasi-spherical gravitational collapse. Also the role of initial data has been investigated in characterizing the final state of collapse. Finally, a linear transformation on the initial data set has been presented and its impact has been discussed.Comment: RevTex, 7 Latex pages, No figure

    Genericity aspects in gravitational collapse to black holes and naked singularities

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    We investigate here the genericity and stability aspects for naked singularities and black holes that arise as the final states for a complete gravitational collapse of a spherical massive matter cloud. The form of the matter considered is a general Type I matter field, which includes most of the physically reasonable matter fields such as dust, perfect fluids and such other physically interesting forms of matter widely used in gravitation theory. We first study here in some detail the effects of small pressure perturbations in an otherwise pressure-free collapse scenario, and examine how a collapse evolution that was going to the black hole endstate would be modified and go to a naked singularity, once small pressures are introduced in the initial data. This allows us to understand the distribution of black holes and naked singularities in the initial data space. Collapse is examined in terms of the evolutions allowed by Einstein equations, under suitable physical conditions and as evolving from a regular initial data. We then show that both black holes and naked singularities are generic outcomes of a complete collapse, when genericity is defined in a suitable sense in an appropriate space.Comment: 24 pages, 6 figures, some changes in text and figures to match the version accepted for publication by IJMP

    On the global visibility of singularity in quasi-spherical collapse

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    We analyze here the issue of local versus the global visibility of a singularity that forms in gravitational collapse of a dust cloud, which has important implications for the weak and strong versions of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We find conditions as to when a singularity will be only locally naked, rather than being globally visible, thus preseving the weak censorship hypothesis. The conditions for formation of a black hole or naked singularity in the Szekeres quasi-spherical collapse models are worked out. The causal behaviour of the singularity curve is studied by examining the outgoing radial null geodesics, and the final outcome of collapse is related to the nature of the regular initial data specified on an initial hypersurface from which the collapse evolves. An interesting feature that emerges is the singularity in Szekeres spacetimes can be ``directionally naked''.Comment: Latex file, 32 pages, 12 postscript figures. To appear in the Journal of General Relativity and Gravitatio

    The Final Fate of Spherical Inhomogeneous Dust Collapse

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    We examine the role of the initial density and velocity distribution in the gravitational collapse of a spherical inhomogeneous dust cloud. Such a collapse is described by the Tolman-Bondi metric which has two free functions: the `mass-function' and the `energy function', which are determined by the initial density and velocity profile of the cloud. The collapse can end in a black-hole or a naked singularity, depending on the initial parameters characterizing these profiles. In the marginally bound case, we find that the collapse ends in a naked singularity if the leading non-vanishing derivative of the density at the center is either the first one or the second one. If the first two derivatives are zero, and the third derivative non-zero, the singularity could either be naked or covered, depending on a quantity determined by the third derivative and the central density. If the first three derivatives are zero, the collapse ends in a black hole. In particular, the classic result of Oppenheimer and Snyder, that homogeneous dust collapse leads to a black hole, is recovered as a special case. Analogous results are found when the cloud is not marginally bound, and also for the case of a cloud starting from rest. We also show how the strength of the naked singularity depends on the density and velocity distribution. Our analysis generalizes and simplifies the earlier work of Christodoulou and Newman [4,5] by dropping the assumption of evenness of density functions. It turns out that relaxing this assumption allows for a smooth transition from the naked singularity phase to the black-hole phase, and also allows for the occurrence of strong curvature naked singularities.Comment: 23 pages; Plain Tex; TIFR-TAP preprin

    On trapped surface formation in gravitational collapse II

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    Further to our consideration on trapped surfaces in gravitational collapse, where pressures were allowed to be negative while satisfying weak energy condition to avoid trapped surface formation, we discuss here several other attempts of similar nature in this direction. Certain astrophysical aspects are pointed out towards examining the physical realization of such a possibility in realistic gravitational collapse

    Gravitational collapse of an isentropic perfect fluid with a linear equation of state

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    We investigate here the gravitational collapse end states for a spherically symmetric perfect fluid with an equation of state p=kρp=k\rho. It is shown that given a regular initial data in terms of the density and pressure profiles at the initial epoch from which the collapse develops, the black hole or naked singularity outcomes depend on the choice of rest of the free functions available, such as the velocities of the collapsing shells, and the dynamical evolutions as allowed by Einstein equations. This clarifies the role that equation of state and initial data play towards determining the final fate of gravitational collapse.Comment: 7 Pages, Revtex4, To appear in Classical and Quantum Gravit

    Role of initial data in spherical collapse

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    We bring out here the role of initial data in causing the black hole and naked singularity phases as the final end state of a continual gravitational collapse. The collapse of a type I general matter field is considered, which includes most of the known physical forms of matter. It is shown that given the distribution of the density and pressure profiles at the initial surface from which the collapse evolves, there is a freedom in choosing rest of the free functions, such as the velocities of the collapsing shells, so that the end state could be either a black hole or a naked singularity depending on this choice. It is thus seen that it is the initial data that determines the end state of spherical collapse in terms of these outcomes, and we get a good picture of how these phases come about.Comment: 5 pages, Revtex4, Revised version, To appear in Physical Review
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