755 research outputs found

    The Latin American Contribution to Center-Periphery Perspectives: History and Prospect

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    In this essay I will trace the formulation of the Latin American contribution to Center-Periphery analysis, its diffusion, crisis, reformulation, and decline. I further consider how Center-Periphery perspectives may be reincorporated into (standard) neoclassical economics.

    Ideas and Action in Postwar Brazil

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    A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal

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    Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países, este artigo fornece o primeiro exercício que usa a metodologia baseada na aproximação macroeconométrica para sucessões cronológicas de longa duração. Dada a conclusão de Clemens e Williamson de que o enquadramento mundial conta, testamos para os dois países a sua pretensão do tariff reversal paradox. As experiências brasileira e portuguesa confirmam que a proteção esteve correlacionada com o crescimento no período anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial, e não é provável que comércio mais livre tivesse aumentado o crescimento econômico português, contrariamente à tese estabelecida. A Primeira Guerra Mundial, contudo, foi um momento decisivo para o Brasil. Ao fazer-se este estudo, usaram-se os melhores dados disponíveis, partindo-se ocasionalmente dos usados por Clemens e Williamson. As nossas conclusões prevalecem com dados alternativos.This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countries, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets

    Rational design of expression vectors for high quality biologics

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    Commercial proteins (e.g. antibodies, enzymes, vaccine components) for applications from biopharmaceuticals to commodity chemicals require low-cost manufacturing of high-quality products. The engineering of recombinant hosts to achieve large quantities of high-quality heterologous proteins is crucial to both minimizing costs and maximizing safety and efficacy (in the case of biopharmaceuticals). High-quality proteins are properly folded and full-length (intact), with native N-, and C-, termini and bear no significant proteolysis or other degradation (oxidation, deamidation, etc…). As most expression hosts rely on recombinant DNA technology for production of the heterologous protein, the transgene cassette provides an early, and inexpensive, opportunity for optimization of quality and protein titer. Commonly, transgene cassettes include a promoter, a heterologous gene of interest, and terminator for expression of the heterologous gene. A targeting sequence for guided recombination and selective marker for isolation of positive clones are also key elements. In engineering the transgene cassette, factors such as the promoter for heterologous gene expression, target site for transgene integration, sequence for translation initiation, and mRNA codon-optimization of the gene of interest are critical design points for a given protein-expressing strain. Here, we demonstrate an approach to transgene cassette optimization in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, informed by functional genomics. Omics-based techniques such as RNA-Seq, ATAC-Seq and ribosomal foot-printing afford greater upfront understanding for subsequent optimized strain engineering on a product-by-product basis. These types of data are cheap and easy to acquire for yeast and can indicate host- or sequence-derived bottlenecks in transgene transcription, translation and expression. Linking these data to product quality attributes can enlighten the design of the expression vector for fast in silico optimization of wide-ranging factors such as gene dosage balance, translation efficiency, and balanced cell kinetics enabling high-quality protein production. Collectively, we show that these tools can enable fast vector design for new heterologous protein-producing strains, including those expressing recombinant vaccines, and robust optimization when engineering higher productivity cell lines

    An Institutional Perspective on Brazil’s Political Economy

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    This essay reviews the following works:   Brazil in Transition: Beliefs, Leadership, and Institutional Change. By Lee J. Alston, Marcus André Melo, Bernardo Mueller, and Carlos Pereira. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016. Pp. xi + 262. 39.50hardcover.ISBN:9780691162911. ThePoliticalConstructionofBrazil:Society,Economy,andStatesinceIndependence.ByLuizCarlosBresser−Pereira.Boulder,CO:LynneRiennerPublishers,2016.Pp.x+419.39.50 hardcover. ISBN: 9780691162911.   The Political Construction of Brazil: Society, Economy, and State since Independence. By Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2016. Pp. x + 419. 85.00 hardcover. ISBN: 9781626373075.   Making Brazil Work: Checking the President in a Multiparty System. By Marcus André Melo and Carlos Pereira. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Pp. xiii + 212. 100.00hardcover.ISBN:9781137310835. NewOrderandProgress:DevelopmentandDemocracyinBrazil.EditedbyBenRossSchneider.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,2016.Pp.ix+307.100.00 hardcover. ISBN: 9781137310835.   New Order and Progress: Development and Democracy in Brazil. Edited by Ben Ross Schneider. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. Pp. ix + 307. 31.95 paperback. ISBN: 9780190462895

    Identification of \u3ci\u3ePlanktothrix\u3c/i\u3e (Cyanobacteria) Blooms and Effects on the Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Community in the Non-Tidal Potomac River, USA

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    Using transverse cross-sectional transects, a survey of 31 km of the non-tidal Potomac River was conducted from White’s Ferry, Virginia to Brunswick, Maryland, USA, between June and September in 2013 through 2015 to assess a recurring benthic cyanobacteria bloom. Abundant benthic cyanobacteria blooms were detected during the 2014 and 2015 sampling seasons and the primary taxon was identified morphologically and molecularly as Planktothrix cf. isothrix. When present, P. cf. isothrix blooms were concentrated from river center to the Maryland shoreline. This pattern was correlated with significantly greater benthic chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations. In an apparent response to the P. cf. isothrix blooms in the study site, aquatic macroinvertebrate community assemblages were significantly different between areas with extensive benthic cyanobacterial growth compared to areas without cyanobacterial growth. Within the P. cf. isothrix mats, the percentage of pollution sensitive taxa was lower and the percentage of pollution tolerant taxa was greater. These data suggest that P. cf. isothrix can act as an ecosystem disruptor through direct impacts to the aquatic macroinvertebrate abundance and community structure within this section of the freshwater, non-tidal Potomac River

    A perfusion-capable microfluidic bioreactor for assessing microbial heterologous protein production

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    We present an integrated microfluidic bioreactor for fully continuous perfusion cultivation of suspended microbial cell cultures. This system allowed continuous and stable heterologous protein expression by sustaining the cultivation of Pichia pastoris over 11 days. This technical capability also allowed testing the impact of perfusion conditions on protein expression. This advance should enable small-scale models for process optimization in continuous biomanufacturing.United States. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (N66001-13-C-4025)National Cancer Institute (U.S.) (P30-CA14051)United States. National Institutes of Health (2T32GM008334-26

    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOBLOLLY PINE SMALL CLEAR SPECIMENS AND DIMENSION LUMBER TESTED IN STATIC BENDING

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    Prior to the 1980s the allowable stresses for lumber in North America were derived from testing of small clear specimens but the procedures changed because these models were found to be inaccurate.  Nevertheless, small clear testing continues to be used around the world for allowable stress determinations and in studies that examine forest management impacts on wood quality.  Using small clears and nondestructive technologies is advantageous because of the ease of obtaining and testing small clear specimens compared to lumber.  The objective of this study was to compare the mechanical properties in bending of small clear specimens with lumber specimens for loblolly pine.  Eight hundred and forty-one pieces of lumber in the No. 1 to No. 3 grades and 2×4 to 2×10 sizes were collected from a forest-thru-mill study and tested in static bending.  A small clear specimen (25 x 25 x 410 mm) was prepared from each piece of lumber and tested in static bending.  The effect of growth ring orientation was explored and overall samples tested on the radial or rift face did a better job of explaining the variation in lumber than samples tested on the tangential face; however, the relationships were generally poor for the modulus of elasticity (MOE) (R2 = 0.22) and modulus of rupture (MOR) (R2 = 0.11) pooled data.  A lumber-based multiple regression model explained 44% and 37% of the variability for MOE and MOR, respectively; whereas a stand-based multiple regression model explained 41% and 29% of the variability for MOE and MOR, respectively
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