165 research outputs found

    Dynamics of Racial Residential Segregation and Gentrification in New York City

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    Racial residential segregation is interconnected with several other phenomena such as income inequalities, property values inequalities, and racial disparities in health and education. Furthermore, recent literature suggests the phenomenon of gentrification as a cause of perpetuation or increase of racial residential segregation in some American cities. In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of racial residential segregation for white, black, Asian, and Hispanic citizens in New York City in 1990, 2000, and 2010. It was possible to observe that segregation between white and Hispanic citizens and between white and Asian ones has grown, while segregation between white and black is relatively stable. Furthermore, we analyzed the per capita income and the Gini coefficient in each segregated zone, showing that the highest inequalities occur in the zones where there is an overlap of high-density zones of pair of races. Focusing on the changing of the density of population across the city during these 20 years, and by analyzing white and black people's segregation, our analysis reveals that a positive flux of white (black) people is associated with a substantial increase (decrease) of the property values, as compared with the city mean. Furthermore, by clustering the region with the higher density of black citizens, we measured the variation of area and displacement of the four most significant clusters from 1990 to 2010. The large displacements ( & AP; 1.6 k m ) observed for two of these clusters, namely, one in the neighborhood of Harlem and the other inside the borough of Brooklyn, led to the emergence of typically gentrified regions

    Validation of Calprotectin As a Novel Biomarker For The Diagnosis of Pleural Effusion: a Multicentre Trial

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    Discriminating between malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and benign pleural effusion (BPE) remains difficult. Thus, novel and efficient biomarkers are required for the diagnosis of pleural effusion (PE). The aim of this study was to validate calprotectin as a diagnostic biomarker of PE in clinical settings. A total of 425 patients were recruited, and the pleural fluid samples collected had BPE in 223 cases (53.7%) or MPE in 137 patients (33%). The samples were all analysed following the same previously validated clinical laboratory protocols and methodology. Calprotectin levels ranged from 772.48 to 3,163.8 ng/mL (median: 1,939 ng/mL) in MPE, and 3,216-24,000 ng/mL in BPE (median: 9,209 ng/mL; p < 0.01), with an area under the curve of 0.848 [95% CI: 0.810-0.886]. For a cut-off value of </= 6,233.2 ng/mL, we found 96% sensitivity and 60% specificity, with a negative and positive predictive value, and negative and positive likelihood ratios of 96%, 57%, 0.06, and 2.4, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that low calprotectin levels was a better discriminator of PE than any other variable [OR 28.76 (p < 0.0001)]. Our results confirm that calprotectin is a new and useful diagnostic biomarker in patients with PE of uncertain aetiology which has potential applications in clinical practice because it may be a good complement to cytological methods

    Evaluation of silages of sweet potato vine

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    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar clones de batata-doce com potencial para uso na alimenta??o animal. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso, com 11 clones e quatro repeti??es. Os clones avaliados fazem parte do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, sendo: BD-06, BD-25, BD-15, BD-38, Cambraia, BD-31-TO, BD-67, BD-45, BD-42, BD-54 e a cultivar Brazl?ndia Rosada. Nas ramas coletadas do experimento foram avaliados o teor de mat?ria seca e as produtividades de massa verde e massa seca. Nas silagens de ramas foram avaliados o pH e os teores de mat?ria seca (MS), prote?na bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ?cido (FDA), nutrientes digest?veis totais (NDT), f?sforo, c?lcio e s?dio. N?o houve diferen?a significativa para a produtividade de massa verde e de massa seca das ramas entre os clones de batata-doce. As silagens produzidas caracterizam-se como volumosos de boa qualidade, apresentando teores satisfat?rios de prote?na bruta (11,59%), FDN (31,98 a 39,68%), FDA (29,65 a 35,45%) e NDT (62,90 a 66,91%), comprovando o potencial de utiliza??o das ramas da batata-doce na forma de silagem.Funda??o de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG)Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecu?ria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico (CNPq)Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior (CAPES)The objective of this study was to select potential clones of sweet potato for animal feeding purposes. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications. Eleven clones BD-06, BD-25, BD-15, BD-38, Cambraia, BD-31-TO, BD-67, BD-45, BD-42, BD-54 and the cultivar Brazl?ndia Rosada belonging to germplasm bank of the Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri (UFVJM) were evaluated. We estimated the dry matter content and the productivity of green and dry mass of the vine. The traits pH, dry matter, crude protein phosphorus, calcium and sodium were estimated in the evaluation of silages quality. There was no significant difference in productivity of green mass and dry mass among the clones of sweet potato. The obtained silages had sufficient levels of crude protein (11.59%), neutral detergent fiber (31.98 to 39.68%), acid detergent fiber (29.65 to 35.45%) and total digestible nutrients (62.90 to 66.91%) proving the potential use of the sweet potato vine as silage in animal feeding

    Agronomic performance and genetic parameters of sweet potato genotypes

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    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho agron?mico em gen?tipos de batata-doce e estimar par?metros gen?ticos. O experimento foi composto por 65 variedades (clones do banco de germoplasma de batata-doce da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri), instalado num delineamento em blocos ao acaso com tr?s repeti??es e 15 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliadas a produtividade de massa verde das ramas (MV), produtividade total das ra?zes (PT), peso m?dio das ra?zes totais (PMT), produtividade de ra?zes comerciais (PC), peso m?dio das ra?zes comerciais (PMC), formato das ra?zes (FORM) e resist?ncia a insetos (RI). Considerando-se os ganhos de sele??o estimados para estas caracter?sticas, infere-se que a sele??o de clones pode levar a progressos gen?ticos signifcativos. Os caracteres PT, PMT, PC, e PMC est?o positivamente correlacionados, logo, a sele??o em qualquer um deles acarreta ganhos gen?ticos nos demais. A sele??o para produ??o de ra?zes pode ser conduzida no car?ter PT, pois sua avalia??o ? mais simples e correlaciona-se com a produ??o comercial, que ? de maior import?ncia. A sele??o no car?ter MV promove aumento nas caracter?sticas PMT e PMC e n?o causa efeitos nas demais. Para a maioria das caracter?sticas houve predomin?ncia dos efeitos ambientais sobre os gen?ticos. Os gen?tipos BD-15, BD-42 e BD-67 apresentaram melhor desempenho agron?mico.Funda??o de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG)Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecu?ria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico (CNPq)Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior (CAPES)The present study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of sweet potato genotypes and estimating genetic parameters. The experiment consisted of 65 varieties (clones) of the sweet potato germplasm bank from the Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley, installed in the design of randomized blocks with three replications and 15 plants per plot. Were evaluated green mass of branches (MV), total productivity of roots (PT), average weight of total roots (PMT), commercial yield (PC), the average weight of marketable roots (PMC), shape of roots (FORM) and insect resistance (IR). Considering the gains of selection for these characteristics, we infer that clone selection can lead to significant genetic progress. The characters PT, PMT, PC and PMC are positively correlated, so selecting any of them carries genetic gains in others. Selection for root production can be conducted in the character PT because its evaluation is simpler and correlates with the commercial production, which is of utmost importance. The selection promotes increases in MV character in PMC and PMT and causes no effects in others. For most traits were prevalent environmental effects on genetic. The BD-15, BD-42 and BD-67 genotypes showed better agronomic performance

    Morphologic characterization of sweet potato accesses from the germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Brazil

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    O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfologicamente os acessos de batata-doce do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). O experimento foi realizado no Setor de Olericultura da UFVJM, per?odo de fevereiro a novembro de 2006, utilizando-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados (DBC), contendo 65 tratamentos e 3 repeti??es, totalizando 195 parcelas de 4,5 m? cada. As avalia??es da parte vegetativa foram feitas tr?s meses ap?s o plantio e a colheita de ra?zes foi realizada nove meses ap?s o plantio das ramas. Observou-se pelo dendrograma de dissimilaridade morfol?gica, que os acessos da cole??o do banco de germoplasma da UFVJM apresentaram ampla variabilidade morfol?gica. Os descritores referentes ? parte a?rea se mostraram significativos com diferen?a entre clones, pelo teste Scott-Knott (p=0,05), diferentemente daqueles referentes ? raiz.Funda??o de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG)Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecu?ria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico (CNPq)Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior (CAPES)Sweet potato accesses from the germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais state, Brazil were characterized. The experiment was carried out between February and November 2006, using a randomized blocks design, with 65 treatments and three replications, totaling 195 plots. The evaluation of the vegetative part was carried out three months after planting and the roots were harvested nine months after planting. Based on the dendrogram of morphologic differences we observed a great morphologic variability on the accesses. The characteristics of the vegetative part showed significant differences among the clones, by Scott Knot test at 5% probability, differently from those of the roots

    Genetic divergence and importance of morphological characters in genotypes of kale

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    A caracteriza??o morfol?gica de gen?tipos de couve ? necess?ria bem como as estimativas da diverg?ncia gen?tica entre os mesmos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar os caracteres morfol?gicos dos gen?tipos de couve oriundos do banco de germoplasma da UFVJM, a diverg?ncia gen?tica existente entre os gen?tipos e a import?ncia destes caracteres nas estimativas da diverg?ncia. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Olericultura da UFVJM, Diamantina-MG, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com trinta gen?tipos e quatro repeti??es, constitu?das por cinco plantas. Para a caracteriza??o morfol?gica avaliaram-se em cada planta quarenta e quatro caracter?sticas. Verifcou-se que h? gen?tipos com grande diverg?ncia gen?tica entre si, sendo os gen?tipos UFLA-6 e UFVJM-24 os mais divergentes em rela??o aos demais, contudo, a maioria dos gen?tipos ? similar. Verifcou-se tamb?m que h? caracter?sticas importantes que podem ser usadas nas estimativas da diverg?nciaFunda??o de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG)Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecu?ria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico (CNPq)Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior (CAPES)The morphological characterization of genotypes of kale is needed as well as the estimates of genetic divergence between them. We studied the morphological characters of kale genotypes originated from the germplasm bank of UFVJM, the genetic divergence among the genotypes and the importance of these characters in the estimates of divergence. The experiment was carried out in the Department of Horticulture of UFVJM, Diamantina, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, using the randomized complete block design with four replications and thirty genotypes, consisting of five plants. Forty-four traits were evaluated on each plant for morphological evaluations. Some genotypes showed high genetic divergence, such as the genotypes UFLA-6 and 24-UFVJM, which were the most divergent compared to the others. Most of the genotypes, however, were similar to each other. It was also observed that there are important characteristics that can be used in the estimation of divergence

    Selection of lettuce genotypes for protected cultivation: genetic divergence and importance of characters

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    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram selecionar gen?tipos de alface com potencial para cultivo em ambiente protegido; selecionar gen?tipos divergentes geneticamente para integrar programas de melhoramento; comparar t?cnicas multivariadas a fim de se ter uma interpreta??o mais precisa dos resultados; verificar a relev?ncia dos caracteres avaliados para a diverg?ncia gen?tica; e determinar os caracteres mais importantes na avalia??o de gen?tipos de alface. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 15 gen?tipos, quatro repeti??es e 15 plantas por parcela. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido e avaliou-se a altura das plantas, di?metro da cabe?a, circunfer?ncia da cabe?a, mat?ria fresca da parte a?rea, mat?ria fresca comercial da parte a?rea, mat?ria fresca da raiz, mat?ria seca comercial da parte a?rea, mat?ria seca da raiz e n?mero de folhas comerciais. Os gen?tipos foram classificados em quatro grupos pelo m?todo Tocher. Foram indicados para uso em cultivo protegido e em programas de melhoramento para obten??o de cultivares adaptadas a essas condi??es, as cultivares 'Regina 500'e 'Vit?ria de S. Ant?o' (grupo I), 'Black Seed Simpson' e 'L?via' (grupo II), 'Branca Boston' (grupo III) e 'Romana Bal?o' (grupo IV). Embora a contribui??o relativa da circunfer?ncia para a diverg?ncia seja apenas 0,50%, todas as caracter?sticas avaliadas foram importantes no estudo da diverg?ncia gen?tica. De acordo com o estudo da correla??o genot?pica, a avalia??o da caracter?stica massa fresca da parte a?rea pode substituir a avalia??o das caracter?sticas massa fresca e massa seca comercial da parte a?rea em um processo de sele??o, reduzindo tempo e custo em um programa de melhoramento.Funda??o de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG)Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecu?ria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico (CNPq)Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior (CAPES)The objectives of this study were to select lettuce genotypes with potential for cultivation in protected environments; select genetically divergent genotypes to integrate breeding programs; compare multivariate analysis to have a more precise interpretation of the results; verify the relevance of evaluated traits to genetic divergence; and determine the most important characters in the evaluation of lettuce genotypes. Fifteen genotypes were studied in a randomized block design with four replications and 15 plants per plot. The experiment was carried out in protected environments and the following traits were evaluated: plant height, head diameter; head circumference; fresh matter of heads; marketable fresh matter of heads; root fresh matter; dry matter of commercial heads; dry matter of roots and number of commercial leaves. The genotypes were classified in four groups by Tocher's method. The genotypes that should preferably be used in protected environment and in breeding programs were 'Regina 500' and 'Vit?ria de S. Ant?o', from group I; 'Black Seed Simpson' and 'L?via' from group II; 'Branca Boston' from group III and 'Romana Bal?o' from group IV. Although the relative contribution of the head circumference is only 0.50%, all traits were important in the study of genetic diversity. According to the genotypic correlation study, the assessment of the fresh mass characteristic of the aerial part can substitute the evaluation of commercial fresh and dry mass of the aerial part in the selection process, reducing the time and cost in a breeding program

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    D.L.M.C. was supported by the London Natural Environmental Research Council Doctoral Training Partnership grant (grant no. NE/L002485/1). This paper developed from analysing data from the African Tropical Rainforest Observatory Network (AfriTRON), curated at ForestPlots.net. AfriTRON has been supported by numerous people and grants since its inception. We sincerely thank the people of the many villages and local communities who welcomed our field teams and without whose support this work would not have been possible. Grants that have funded the AfriTRON network, including data in this paper, are a European Research Council Advanced Grant (T-FORCES; 291585; Tropical Forests in the Changing Earth System), a NERC standard grant (NER/A/S/2000/01002), a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to S.L.L., a NERC New Investigators Grant to S.L.L., a Philip Leverhulme Award to S.L.L., a European Union FP7 grant (GEOCARBON; 283080), Leverhulme Program grant (Valuing the Arc); a NERC Consortium Grant (TROBIT; NE/D005590/), NERC Large Grant (CongoPeat; NE/R016860/1) the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), and Gabon‚Äôs National Parks Agency (ANPN). This paper was supported by ForestPlots.net approved Research Project 81, ‚ÄėComparative Ecology of African Tropical Forests‚Äô. The development of ForestPlots.net and data curation has been funded by several grants, including NE/B503384/1, NE/N012542/1, ERC Advanced Grant 291585‚ÄĒ‚ÄėT-FORCES‚Äô, NE/F005806/1, NERC New Investigators Awards, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, a Royal Society University Research Fellowship and a Leverhulme Trust Research Fellowship. Fieldwork in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Yangambi and Yoko sites) was funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office BELSPO (SD/AR/01A/COBIMFO, BR/132/A1/AFRIFORD, BR/143/A3/HERBAXYLAREDD, FED-tWIN2019-prf-075/CongoFORCE, EF/211/TREE4FLUX); by the Flemish Interuniversity Council VLIR-UOS (CD2018TEA459A103, FORMONCO II); by L‚ÄôAcad√©mie de recherche et d‚Äôenseignement sup√©rieur ARES (AFORCO project) and by the European Union through the FORETS project (Formation, Recherche, Environnement dans la TShopo) supported by the XIth European Development Fund. EMV was supported by fellowship from the CNPq (Grant 308543/2021-1). RAPELD plots in Brazil were supported by the Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) and the National Institute for Amazonian Biodiversity (INCT-CENBAM). BGL post-doc grant no. 2019/03379-4, S√£o Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). D.A.C. was supported by the CCI Collaborative fund. Plots in Mato Grosso, Brazil, were supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), PELD-TRAN 441244/2016-5 and 441572/2020-0, and Mato Grosso State Research Support Foundation (FAPEMAT)‚ÄĒ0346321/2021. We thank E. Chezeaux, R. Condit, W. J. Eggeling, R. M. Ewers, O. J. Hardy, P. Jeanmart, K. L. Khoon, J. L. Lloyd, A. Marjokorpi, W. Marthy, H. Ntahobavuka, D. Paget, J. T. A. Proctor, R. P. Salom√£o, P. Saner, S. Tan, C. O. Webb, H. Woell and N. Zweifel for contributing forest inventory data. We thank numerous field assistants for their invaluable contributions to the collection of forest inventory data, including A. Nkwasibwe, ITFC field assistant.Peer reviewe

    The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

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    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures
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