82,919 research outputs found

    Alfven wave transport effects in the time evolution of parallel cosmic-ray modified shocks

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    Some of the issues associated with a more complete treatment of Alfven transport in cosmic ray shocks are explored qualitatively. The treatment is simplified in some important respects, but some new issues are examined and for the first time a nonlinear, time dependent study of plane cosmic ray mediated shocks with both the entropy producing effects of wave dissipation and effects due to the Alfven wave advection of the cosmic ray relative to the gas is included. Examination of the direct consequences of including the pressure and energy of the Alfven waves in the formalism began

    Cluster Accretion Shocks as Possible Acceleration Sites for Ultra High Energy Protons below the Greisen Cutoff

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    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of large scale structure in the Universe have shown that accretion shocks form during the gravitational collapse of one-dimensional caustics, and that clusters of galaxies formed at intersections of the caustics are surrounded by these accretion shocks. Estimated speed and curvature radius of the shocks are 1000-3000 \kms and about 5 Mpc, respectively, in the Ω=1\Omega=1 CDM universe. Assuming that energetic protons are accelerated by these accretion shocks via the first-order Fermi process and modeling particle transport around the shocks through Bohm diffusion, we suggest that protons can be accelerated up to the {\it Greisen cutoff energy} near 6×10196\times 10^{19} eV, provided the mean magnetic field strength in the region around the shocks is at least of order a microgauss. We have also estimated the proton flux at earth from the Virgo cluster. Assuming a few (1-10) \% of the ram pressure of the infalling matter would be transferred to the cosmic-rays, the estimated flux for E1019 E \sim 10^{19}eV is consistent with observations, so that such clusters could be plausible sources of the UHE CRs.Comment: 14 pages, uuencoded compressed postscript file. Accepted for Jan. 1, 1996 issue of Ap

    Three-Dimensional Simulations of the Parker Instability in a Uniformly-rotating Disk

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    We investigate the nonlinear effects of uniform rotation on the Parker instability in an exponentially-stratified disk through high-resolution simulations. During the linear stage, the speed of gas motion is subsonic and the evolution with the rotation is not much different from that without the rotation. This is because the Coriolis force is small. During the nonlinear stage, oppositely-directed supersonic flows near a magnetic valley are under the influence of the Coriolis force with different directions, resulting in twisted magnetic field lines near the valley. Sheet-like structures, which are tilted with respect to the initial field direction, are formed with an 1.5 enhancement of column density with respect to its initial value. Even though uniform rotation doesn't give much impact on density enhancement, it generates helically twisted field lines, which may become an additional support mechanism of clouds.Comment: 3 pages, uses rmaa.cls, to appear in Proc. of the Conference on "Astrophysical Plasmas: Codes, Models and Observations", Eds. J. Franco, J. Arthur, N. Brickhouse, Rev.Mex.AA Conf. Serie

    Simulating Electron Transport and Synchrotron Emission in Radio Galaxies: Shock Acceleration and Synchrotron Aging in Three-Dimensional Flows

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    We present the first three-dimensional MHD radio galaxy simulations that explicitly model transport of relativistic electrons, including diffusive acceleration at shocks as well as radiative and adiabatic cooling in smooth flows. We discuss three simulations of light Mach 8 jets, designed to explore the effects of shock acceleration and radiative aging on the nonthermal particle populations that give rise to synchrotron and inverse-Compton radiations. We also conduct detailed synthetic radio observations of our simulated objects. We have gained several key insights from this approach: 1. The jet head in these multidimensional simulations is extremely complex. The classical jet termination shock is often absent, but motions of the jet terminus spin a ``shock-web complex'' within the backflowing jet material of the head. 2. Understanding the spectral distribution of energetic electrons in these simulations relies partly upon understanding the shock-web complex, for it can give rise to distributions that confound interpretation in terms of the standard model for radiative aging of radio galaxies. 3. The magnetic field outside of the jet itself becomes very intermittent and filamentary in these simulations, yet adiabatic expansion causes most of the cocoon volume to be occupied by field strengths considerably diminished below the nominal jet value. Thus population aging rates vary considerably from point to point.Comment: 44 pages, 6 figures; to be published in the Astrophysical Journal (August 2001); higher-quality figures can be found at http://www.msi.umn.edu/Projects/twj/radjet/radjet.htm