148 research outputs found

    2002 Coastal Municipal Stormwater Infrastructure Mapping Project

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    This final report describes the grant program funded by NHEP and administered by DES. A Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between NHEP and DES created a grant program to provide assistance to coastal communities to develop storm sewer infrastructure maps. DES issued a request for proposals (RFP), chose grant recipients, and managed the grant agreements. This report provides details on the grant projects completed by Portsmouth and Seabrook. The deadline for completion of all grant projects was December 31, 2003

    Innovative Stormwater Treatment Technologies: Best Management Practices Manual

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    Urban stormwater carries a number of pathogens, nutrients, heavy metals, sediment, and other contaminants as surface runoff flows over land. The increase in impervious or paved surfaces associated with development in urban areas reduces the natural infiltration of precipitation into the ground. With impervious cover, precipitation collects and carries contaminants before draining into nearby surface waters. Stormwater runoff from paved surfaces in developed areas can degrade downstream waters with both contaminants and increased volumes of water. This publication aims to make information on innovative stormwater treatment technologies more available to New Hampshire’s urban planners, developers, and communities. Traditional runoff management techniques such as detention basins and infiltration swales may be preferable, but are not always practical for treating urban stormwater. Lack of space for natural solutions is often a problem in existing developed areas, making innovative treatment technologies an attractive alternative. Mostly designed for subsurface installation, urban “retrofits” use less space than conventional methods to treat stormwater. This manual provides information on the innovative stormwater “retrofit” technologies currently available for use in developed areas in New Hampshire

    DNA-Based Genetic Markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa (Fast Plants Type) Designed for the Teaching Laboratory

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    We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for B. rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a non-genic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology

    Selective demarketing: When customers destroy value.

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    Selective demarketing is a strategic option for firms to manage customers who are or are likely to be a poor fit with its offering. Research has investigated related areas such as customer profitability and relationship dissolution but, as yet, studies have not offered a robust conceptualisation of selective demarketing. Based on research into value co-destruction, this study argues that these customers effectively destroy value by misusing or misunderstanding how to integrate their operant resources with those of the firm. As firms exist within a wider service system, this failure to integrate resonates throughout the system. To demarket selectively, firms use higher order operant resources to disengage and discourage these customers. This study offers a novel conceptualisation of selective demarketing and extends research on value destruction through adopting a firm and systems perspective

    Head Impact Exposure in Youth and Collegiate American Football

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    The relationship between head impact and subsequent brain injury for American football players is not well defined, especially for youth. The objective of this study is to quantify and assess Head Impact Exposure (HIE) metrics among youth and collegiate football players. This multiseason study enrolled 639 unique athletes (354 collegiate; 285 youth, ages 9–14), recording 476,209 head impacts (367,337 collegiate; 108,872 youth) over 971 sessions (480 collegiate; 491 youth). Youth players experienced 43 and 65% fewer impacts per competition and practice, respectively, and lower impact magnitudes compared to collegiate players (95th percentile peak linear acceleration (PLA, g) competition: 45.6 vs 61.9; 95th percentile PLA practice: 42.6 vs 58.8; 95th percentile peak rotational acceleration (PRA, rad∙s–2) competition: 2262 vs 4422; 95th percentile PRA practice: 2081 vs 4052; 95th percentile HITsp competition: 25.4 vs 32.8; 95th percentile HITsp practice: 23.9 vs 30.2). Impacts during competition were more frequent and of greater magnitude than during practice at both levels. Quantified comparisons of head impact frequency and magnitude between youth and collegiate athletes reveal HIE differences as a function of age, and expanded insight better informs the development of age-appropriate guidelines for helmet design, prevention measures, standardized testing, brain injury diagnosis, and recovery management

    Nanoparticle clearance is governed by Th1/Th2 immunity and strain background

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    Extended circulation of nanoparticles in blood is essential for most clinical applications. Nanoparticles are rapidly cleared by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Approaches such as grafting polyethylene glycol onto particles (PEGylation) extend circulation times; however, these particles are still cleared, and the processes involved in this clearance remain poorly understood. Here, we present an intravital microscopy–based assay for the quantification of nanoparticle clearance, allowing us to determine the effect of mouse strain and immune system function on particle clearance. We demonstrate that mouse strains that are prone to Th1 immune responses clear nanoparticles at a slower rate than Th2-prone mice. Using depletion strategies, we show that both granulocytes and macrophages participate in the enhanced clearance observed in Th2-prone mice. Macrophages isolated from Th1 strains took up fewer particles in vitro than macrophages from Th2 strains. Treating macrophages from Th1 strains with cytokines to differentiate them into M2 macrophages increased the amount of particle uptake. Conversely, treating macrophages from Th2 strains with cytokines to differentiate them into M1 macrophages decreased their particle uptake. Moreover, these results were confirmed in human monocyte–derived macrophages, suggesting that global immune regulation has a significant impact on nanoparticle clearance in humans

    Developing the specifications of an Open Angle Glaucoma screening intervention in the United Kingdom : a Delphi approach

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    PMID: 23216983 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3563574 Free PMC Article Acknowledgements We thank all the glaucoma specialists who took part in the Delphi process. We thank the Glaucoma screening Platform Study advisory panel including R Bativala, D Crabb, D Garway-Heath, M Griffiths, R Hitchings; S McPherson, A Tuulonen, A Viswanathan, H Waterman, R Wormald, D Wright for their guidance and contribution to the Delphi process and Luke Vale and Rodolfo Hernandez for their advice on development of the Delphi questionnaires. This paper was developed from the first phase of a project funded by the MRC (project reference G0701759) Developing the intervention & outcome components of a proposed randomized controlled trial of screening for open angle glaucoma. The Health Services Research Unit is core funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the funders.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Transfer of Xanthomonas campestris pv. arecae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to Xanthomonas vasicola (Vauterin) as Xanthomonas vasicola pv. arecae comb. nov., and Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum comb. nov. and description of Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum pv. nov.

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    The "Ca2+ switch" model with cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells is useful in studying the biogenesis of epithelial polarity and junction formation and provides insight into early steps in the morphogenesis of polarized epithelial tissues. When extracellular Ca2+ in the medium is changed from less than 5 microM to 1.8 mM, MDCK cells rapidly change from a nonpolarized state exhibiting little cell-cell contact (with the apical membrane and junctional proteins largely within the cell) to a polarized state with well-formed tight junctions and desmosomes. To examine the role of intracellular Ca2+ in the development of polarity and junctions, we made continuous spectrofluorimetric measurements of intracellular Ca2+ during the "switch," using the fluorescent indicator fura-2. Intracellular Ca2+ increased greater than 10-fold during the switch and gave a complex pattern of increase, decrease, and stabilization. In contrast, intracellular pH [monitored with 29,79-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and 6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)] did not change during the period studied. When intracellular Ca2+ curves in several cells were compared, considerable heterogeneity in the rate of increase of intracellular Ca2+ levels and in peak levels was evident, perhaps reflecting the heterogeneity among cells in establishing junctions and polarity. The heterogeneity of the process was confirmed by digital imaging of intracellular Ca2+ and was present even in a "clonal" line of MDCK cells, indicating the heterogeneity was intrinsic to the process and not simply a function of slight genetic variation within the population of MDCK cells. In pairs of cells that had barely established cell-cell contact, often one cell exhibited a much greater increase in intracellular Ca2+ than the other cell in the pair. At the site of cell-cell contact, an apparent localized change (an increase over the basal level) in intracellular Ca2+ was frequently present and occasionally appeared to extend beyond the point of cell-cell contact. Since the region of cell-cell contact is also the site where junctions form and where vesicles containing apical membranes fuse during the development of polarity, we postulate a role for global and local changes in intracellular Ca2+ in these events

    Milky Way Tomography IV: Dissecting Dust

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    We use SDSS photometry of 73 million stars to simultaneously obtain best-fit main-sequence stellar energy distribution (SED) and amount of dust extinction along the line of sight towards each star. Using a subsample of 23 million stars with 2MASS photometry, whose addition enables more robust results, we show that SDSS photometry alone is sufficient to break degeneracies between intrinsic stellar color and dust amount when the shape of extinction curve is fixed. When using both SDSS and 2MASS photometry, the ratio of the total to selective absorption, RVR_V, can be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.1 for most stars in high-extinction regions. These fits enable detailed studies of the dust properties and its spatial distribution, and of the stellar spatial distribution at low Galactic latitudes. Our results are in good agreement with the extinction normalization given by the Schlegel et al. (1998, SFD) dust maps at high northern Galactic latitudes, but indicate that the SFD extinction map appears to be consistently overestimated by about 20% in the southern sky, in agreement with Schlafly et al. (2010). The constraints on the shape of the dust extinction curve across the SDSS and 2MASS bandpasses support the models by Fitzpatrick (1999) and Cardelli et al. (1989). For the latter, we find an RV=3.0±0.1R_V=3.0\pm0.1(random) ±0.1\pm0.1(systematic) over most of the high-latitude sky. At low Galactic latitudes (|b|<5), we demonstrate that the SFD map cannot be reliably used to correct for extinction as most stars are embedded in dust, rather than behind it. We introduce a method for efficient selection of candidate red giant stars in the disk, dubbed "dusty parallax relation", which utilizes a correlation between distance and the extinction along the line of sight. We make these best-fit parameters, as well as all the input SDSS and 2MASS data, publicly available in a user-friendly format.Comment: Submitted to ApJ, 55 pages, 37 figure
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