11 research outputs found

    Advocacy participation and brand loyalty in virtual brand community

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    Brand owners use virtual communities to strengthen brand loyalty by engaging consumers in active content creation activities. Personal and reciprocal communication and consumers’ participation in virtual brand communities are the main sources through which communities contribute to brand loyalty formation. This research examines the antecedents and consequences of advocacy participation in virtual brand communities. The results show that the VBC members’ advocacy participation is strongly contributed by the community’s ability to promote reciprocal and personal use experience, which also directly affects the members’ brand satisfaction. The results further show that advocacy participation and participation frequency positively contribute to especially attitudinal loyalty formation. Participation is found to be negatively related with brand satisfaction

    Real-life clinical sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test in symptomatic patients

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    Background Understanding the false negative rates of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing is pivotal for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic and it has implications for patient management. Our aim was to determine the real-life clinical sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. Methods This population-based retrospective study was conducted in March-April 2020 in the Helsinki Capital Region, Finland. Adults who were clinically suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection and underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, with sufficient data in their medical records for grading of clinical suspicion were eligible. In addition to examining the first RT-PCR test of repeat-tested individuals, we also used high clinical suspicion for COVID-19 as the reference standard for calculating the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. Results All 1,194 inpatients (mean [SD] age, 63.2 [18.3] years; 45.2% women) admitted to COVID-19 cohort wards during the study period were included. The outpatient cohort of 1,814 individuals (mean [SD] age, 45.4 [17.2] years; 69.1% women) was sampled from epidemiological line lists by systematic quasi-random sampling. The sensitivity (95% CI) for laboratory confirmed cases (repeat-tested patients) was 85.7% (81.5-89.1%) inpatients; 95.5% (92.2-97.5%) outpatients, 89.9% (88.2-92.1%) all. When also patients that were graded as high suspicion but never tested positive were included in the denominator, the sensitivity (95% CI) was: 67.5% (62.9-71.9%) inpatients; 34.9% (31.4-38.5%) outpatients; 47.3% (44.4-50.3%) all. Conclusions The clinical sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing was only moderate at best. The relatively high false negative rates of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing need to be accounted for in clinical decision making, epidemiological interpretations, and when using RT-PCR as a reference for other tests.Peer reviewe

    TRY plant trait database ‚Äď enhanced coverage and open access

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    Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants - determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait‚Äźbased plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits - almost complete coverage for ‚Äėplant growth form‚Äô. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait‚Äďenvironmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives

    Alaistaidot esimiestyön tukena? : Alaistaidot, alaistaitojen kehittäminen ja kehittämisen haasteet esimiesten näkökulmasta

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    Tutkimus koostuu esimiestyöstä, alaistaidoista ja alaistaitojen kehittämisestä sekä alaistaitojen kehittämisen haasteista. Näiden käsitteiden avulla pyrin löytämään vastauksen siihen, kuinka alaistaitojen kehittäminen vaikuttaa esimiestyöhön. Siitä voidaan myös päätellä, ovatko alaistaidot esimiestyön tukena. Tutkimuksessa esimiestyö keskittyy johtamiseen, ihmissuhteisiin sekä odotuksiin esimiehen ja alaisten välillä. Lisäksi esimiehen vastuut ja velvollisuudet selventyvät. Alaistaidot ja alaistaitojen kehittäminen selventää käsitettä alaistaito, hyvän alaisen määritelmää ja alaisrooleja. Tutkimus tarkentaa kuinka alaistaitoja kehitetään, mitkä ovat kehittämisen tavoitteet ja mitä esteitä voi olla alaistaitojen kehittämiselle. Tutkimus toteutettiin kyselytutkimuksena Internetin välityksellä huhtikuussa 2013. Kyselylomakkeeseen vastasi yhteensä 55 terveydenhuoltoalan esimiestä, jotka työskentelevät terveyskeskussairaaloissa ja keskussairaaloissa. Terveydenhuoltoalan esimiehet olivat apulaisosastonhoitajia, osastonhoitajia ja ylihoitajia. Kyselylomake sisälsi strukturoituja mielipidettä kartoittavia kysymyksiä sekä avoimia kysymyksiä. Tutkimus selvensi alaistaitojen olevan monipuolisesti määriteltävä taito. Alaistaito on toimintaa, joka on vapaaehtoista, eli vastuullisuutta, aktiivisuutta, auttamishalua ja toisten tukemista. Alaistaidot ovat myös ammatillista osaamista, joka ilmenee haluna kehittää itseään ja omaa työtään. Alaistaidot omaava jakaa muille tietoaan ja osaamistaan, josta hyötyy koko työyhteisö. Ilmeni, että hyvä alainen ottaa vastuun tekemästään työstä, kykenee vuorovaikutukseen, tukee esimiestä ja auttaa muita työntekijöitä. Tutkimuksessa nousi esiin, että esimiehet pitävät alaistaitoja tärkeinä ja alaistaitojen kehittämisen hyötyä suurena. Alaistaitojen kehittämisen hyötynä on yhteistyön lisääntyminen, jolla on vaikutusta kaikkiin muihin toimintoihin työyhteisössä. Tärkein alaistaito esimiesten mukaan on vastuullisuus. Seuraavana tulevat ammatillinen osaaminen ja ammatillinen motivaatio. Vähäisimpänä alaistaitona pidetään organisaatioon samaistumista. Keskeinen havainto on, että alaistaitoja voidaan kehittää esimiestyöskentelyn avulla, esimerkiksi kuuntelemalla alaisia, toimimalla tasapuolisesti ja rohkaisemalla keskustelemaan asioista. Lisäksi alaistaitoja lisääviä seikkoja on esimiehen motivoiva käytös sekä itsensä ajan tasalla pitäminen, eli esimies tietää mitä työyhteisössä tapahtuu. Haasteet alaistaitojen kehittämiselle voivat liittyä alaiseen, esimieheen tai työyhteisöön. Alaiseen liittyviä haasteita ovat alaisen asenne, motivaation tai tiedon puute. Esimieheen liittyviä haasteita ovat johtamiskulttuuri ja esimiestaidot. Työyhteisön asettamat haasteet muodostuvat kiireestä, liiallisesta työmäärästä ja työpaikan kulttuurista. Empirian mukaan esimiehen vastuista tärkein on osaamisen varmistaminen. Seuraavaksi tärkeimmät ovat toiminnan ohjaaminen ja töiden organisointi. Vähäisimpinä vastuina pidetään työnantajan edunvalvontaa, palautteenantoa ja työhön perehdytystä. Kielteinen asenne ilmeni myös esimiesten halussa perehdyttää uusi työntekijä itse vaikka tutkimuksen mukaan perehdyttämisellä on alaistaitoja kehittävä vaikutus. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että alaistaidoilla on merkitystä esimiestyössä eli alaistaidot ovat esimiestyön tukena. Esimiehet saavat paremman tuen alaisiltaan kun tehdään yhteistyötä, jonka avulla saavutetaan yhdessä tekemistä, joka lisää työn mukavuutta. Kaikki tämä johtaa toisten huomiointiin, muutoksiin työilmapiirissä, työn laatuun ja työajankäytön tehostumiseen työyksikössä.fi=Opinnäytetyö kokotekstinä PDF-muodossa.|en=Thesis fulltext in PDF format.|sv=Lärdomsprov tillgängligt som fulltext i PDF-format

    The crucial role of titin in fetal development: recurrent miscarriages and bone, heart and muscle anomalies characterise the severe end of titinopathies spectrum

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    Background Titin truncating variants (TTNtvs) have been associated with several forms of myopathies and/or cardiomyopathies. In homozygosity or in compound heterozygosity, they cause a wide spectrum of recessive phenotypes with a congenital or childhood onset. Most recessive phenotypes showing a congenital or childhood onset have been described in subjects carrying biallelic TTNtv in specific exons. Often karyotype or chromosomal microarray analyses are the only tests performed when prenatal anomalies are identified. Thereby, many cases caused by TTN defects might be missed in the diagnostic evaluations. In this study, we aimed to dissect the most severe end of the titinopathies spectrum.Methods We performed a retrospective study analysing an international cohort of 93 published and 10 unpublished cases carrying biallelic TTNtv.Results We identified recurrent clinical features showing a significant correlation with the genotype, including fetal akinesia (up to 62%), arthrogryposis (up to 85%), facial dysmorphisms (up to 73%), joint (up to 17%), bone (up to 22%) and heart anomalies (up to 27%) resembling complex, syndromic phenotypes.Conclusion We suggest TTN to be carefully evaluated in any diagnostic process involving patients with these prenatal signs. This step will be essential to improve diagnostic performance, expand our knowledge and optimise prenatal genetic counselling

    Role of the repeat expansion size in predicting age of onset and severity in RFC1 disease

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    RFC1 disease, caused by biallelic repeat expansion in RFC1, is clinically heterogeneous in terms of age of onset, disease progression and phenotype. We investigated the role of the repeat size in influencing clinical variables in RFC1 disease. We also assessed the presence and role of meiotic and somatic instability of the repeat. In this study, we identified 553 patients carrying biallelic RFC1 expansions and measured the repeat expansion size in 392 cases. Pearson's coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between the repeat size and age at disease onset. A Cox model with robust cluster standard errors was adopted to describe the effect of repeat size on age at disease onset, on age at onset of each individual symptoms, and on disease progression. A quasi-poisson regression model was used to analyse the relationship between phenotype and repeat size. We performed multi-variate linear regression to assess the association of the repeat size with the degree of cerebellar atrophy. Meiotic stability was assessed by Southern blotting on first-degree relatives of 27 probands. Finally, somatic instability was investigated by optical genome mapping on cerebellar and frontal cortex and unaffected peripheral tissue from four post-mortem cases. A larger repeat size of both smaller and larger allele was associated with an earlier age at neurological onset (smaller allele HR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.06, p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001; larger allele HR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.53, p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001) and with a higher hazard of developing disabling symptoms, such as dysarthria or dysphagia (smaller allele HR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ3.40, p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001; larger allele HR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.71, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.002) or loss of independent walking (smaller allele HR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.78, p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001; larger allele HR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.60; p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001) earlier in disease course. Patients with more complex phenotypes carried larger expansions (smaller allele: complex neuropathy RR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.30, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.003; CANVAS RR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.34, p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001; larger allele: complex neuropathy RR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.33, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.008; CANVAS RR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.31, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.009). Furthermore, larger repeat expansions in the smaller allele were associated with more pronounced cerebellar vermis atrophy (lobules I-V ő≤=-1.06, p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001; lobules VI-VII ő≤=-0.34, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.005). The repeat did not show significant instability during vertical transmission and across different tissues and brain regions. RFC1 repeat size, particularly of the smaller allele, is one of the determinants of variability in RFC1 disease and represents a key prognostic factor to predict disease onset, phenotype, and severity. Assessing the repeat size is warranted as part of the diagnostic test for RFC1 expansion

    Teamwork makes the dream work: Disentangling cross-taxon congruence across soil biota in black pine plantations

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    Soil plays a fundamental role in many ecological processes, throughout a complex network of above- and below-ground interactions. This has aroused increasing interest in the use of correlates for biodiversity assessment and has demonstrated their reliability with respect to proxies based on environmental data alone. Although co-variation of species richness and composition in forests has been discussed in the literature, only a few studies have explored these elements in forest plantations, which are generally thought to be poor in biodiversity, being aimed at timber production. Based on this premise our aims were 1) to test if cross-taxon congruence across different groups of organisms (bacteria, vascular plants, mushrooms, ectomycorrhizae, mycelium, carabids, microarthropods, nematodes) is consistent in artificial stands; 2) to evaluate the strength of relationships due to the existing environmental gradients as expressed by abiotic and biotic factors (soil, spatial-topographic, dendrometric variables). Correlations between groups were studied with Mantel and partial Mantel tests, while variance partition analysis was applied to assess the relative effect of environmental variables on the robustness of observed relationships. Significant cross-taxon congruence was observed across almost all taxonomic groups pairs. However, only bacteria/mycelium and mushrooms/mycelium correlations remained significant after removing the environmental effect, suggesting that a strong abiotic influence drives species composition. Considering variation partitioning, the results highlighted the importance of bacteria as a potential indicator: bacteria were the taxonomic group with the highest compositional variance explained by the predictors used; furthermore, they proved to be involved in the only cases where the variance attributed solely to the pure effect of biotic or abiotic predictors was significant. Remarkably, the co-dependent effect of all predictors always explained the highest portion of total variation in all dependent taxa, testifying the intricate and dynamic interplay of environmental factors and biotic interactions in explaining cross-taxon congruence in forest plantations
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