1,837 research outputs found

    Transcriptional Co-repressor Function of the Hippo Pathway Transducers YAP and TAZ

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    SummaryYAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ are oncogenic transcriptional co-activators downstream of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. However, whether YAP and/or TAZ (YAP/TAZ) engage in transcriptional co-repression remains relatively unexplored. Here, we directly demonstrated that YAP/TAZ represses numerous target genes, including tumor-suppressor genes such as DDIT4 (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4) and Trail (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). Mechanistically, the repressor function of YAP/TAZ requires TEAD (TEA domain) transcription factors. A YAP/TAZ-TEAD complex recruits the NuRD complex to deacetylate histones and alters nucleosome occupancy at target genes. Functionally, repression of DDIT4 and Trail by YAP/TAZ is required for mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) activation and cell survival, respectively. Our demonstration of the transcriptional co-repressor activity of YAP/TAZ opens a new avenue for understanding the Hippo signaling pathway

    Interaction of Ihh and BMP/Noggin Signaling during Cartilage Differentiation

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    AbstractBone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in regulating multiple stages of bone development. Recently it has been shown that constitutive activation of theBMP receptor-IAblocks chondrocyte differentiation in a similar manner as misexpression ofIndian hedgehog.In this paper we analyze the role of BMPs as possible mediators of Indian hedgehog signaling and useNogginmisexpression to gain insight into additional roles of BMPs during cartilage differentiation. We show by comparative analysis ofBMPandIhhexpression domains that the borders ofIndian hedgehogexpression in the chondrocytes are reflected in changes of the expression level of severalBMPgenes in the adjacent perichondrium. We further demonstrate that misexpression ofIndian hedgehogappears to directly upregulateBMP2andBMP4expression, independent of the differentiation state of the flanking chondrocytes. In contrast, changes inBMP5andBMP7expression in the perichondrium correspond to altered differentiation states of the flanking chondrocytes. In addition,NogginandChordin,which are both expressed in the developing cartilage elements, also change their expression pattern afterIhhmisexpression. Finally, we use retroviral misexpression ofNoggin,a potent antagonist of BMP signaling, to gain insight into additional roles of BMP signaling during cartilage differentiation. We find that BMP signaling is necessary for the growth and differentiation of the cartilage elements. In addition, this analysis revealed that the members of the BMP/Noggin signaling pathway are linked in a complex autoregulatory network

    Gene expression profiles in developing nephrons using Lim1 metanephric mesenchyme-specific conditional mutant mice

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    BACKGROUND: Lim1 is a homeobox gene that is essential for nephrogenesis. During metanephric kidney development, Lim1 is expressed in the nephric duct, ureteric buds, and the induced metanephric mesenchyme. Conditional ablation of Lim1 in the metanephric mesenchyme blocks the formation of nephrons at the nephric vesicle stage, leading to the production of small, non-functional kidneys that lack nephrons. METHODS: In the present study, we used Affymetrix probe arrays to screen for nephron-specific genes by comparing the expression profiles of control and Lim1 conditional mutant kidneys. Kidneys from two developmental stages, embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) and 18.5 (E18.5), were examined. RESULTS: Comparison of E18.5 kidney expression profiles generated a list of 465 nephron-specific gene candidates that showed a more than 2-fold increase in their expression level in control kidney versus the Lim1 conditional mutant kidney. Computational analysis confirmed that this screen enriched for kidney-specific genes. Furthermore, at least twenty-eight of the top fifty (56%) candidates (or their vertebrate orthologs) were previously reported to have a nephron-specific expression pattern. Our analysis of E14.5 expression data yielded 41 candidate genes that are up-regulated in the control kidneys compared to the conditional mutants. Three of them are related to the Notch signaling pathway that is known to be important in cell fate determination and nephron patterning. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we demonstrate that Lim1 conditional mutant kidneys serve as a novel tissue source for comprehensive expression studies and provide a means to identify nephron-specific genes

    Dual function of Yap in the regulation of lens progenitor cells and cellular polarity

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    AbstractHippo-Yap signaling has been implicated in organ size determination via its regulation of cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis (Pan, 2007). The vertebrate lens comprises only two major cell types, lens progenitors and differentiated fiber cells, thereby providing a relatively simple system for studying size-controlling mechanisms. In order to investigate the role of Hippo-Yap signaling in lens size regulation, we conditionally ablated Yap in the developing mouse lens. Lens progenitor-specific deletion of Yap led to near obliteration of the lens primarily due to hypocellularity in the lens epithelium (LE) and accompanying lens fiber (LF) defects. A significantly reduced LE progenitor pool resulted mainly from failed self-renewal and increased apoptosis. Additionally, Yap-deficient lens progenitor cells precociously exited the cell cycle and expressed the LF marker, β-Crystallin. The mutant progenitor cells also exhibited multiple cellular and subcellular alterations including cell and nuclear shape change, organellar polarity disruption, and disorganized apical polarity complex and junction proteins such as Crumbs, Pals1, Par3 and ZO-1. Yap-deficient LF cells failed to anchor to the overlying LE layer, impairing their normal elongation and packaging. Furthermore, our localization study results suggest that, in the developing LE, Yap participates in the cell context-dependent transition from the proliferative to differentiation-competent state by integrating cell density information. Taken together, our results shed new light on Yap's indispensable and novel organizing role in mammalian organ size control by coordinating multiple events including cell proliferation, differentiation, and polarity

    Parasite-stress promotes in-group assortative sociality: the cases of strong family ties and heightened religiosity

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    Throughout the world people differ in the magnitude with which they value strong family ties or heightened religiosity. We propose that this cross-cultural variation is a result of a contingent psychological adaptation that facilitates in-group assortative sociality in the face of high levels of parasite-stress while devaluing in-group assortative sociality in areas with low levels of parasite-stress. This is because in-group assortative sociality is more important for the avoidance of infection from novel parasites and for the management of infection in regions with high levels of parasite-stress compared with regions of low infectious disease stress. We examined this hypothesis by testing the predictions that there would be a positive association between parasite-stress and strength of family ties or religiosity. We conducted this study by comparing among nations and among states in the United States of America. We found for both the international and the interstate analyses that in-group assortative sociality was positively associated with parasite-stress. This was true when controlling for potentially confounding factors such as human freedom and economic development. The findings support the parasite-stress theory of sociality, that is, the proposal that parasite-stress is central to the evolution of social life in humans and other animals

    A genome-wide library of MADM mice for single-cell genetic mosaic analysis

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    Mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM) offers one approach to visualize and concomitantly manipulate genetically defined cells in mice with single-cell resolution. MADM applications include the analysis of lineage, single-cell morphology and physiology, genomic imprinting phenotypes, and dissection of cell-autonomous gene functions in vivo in health and disease. Yet, MADM can only be applied to 96% of the entire mouse genome can now be subjected to single-cell genetic mosaic analysis. Beyond a proof of principle, we apply our MADM library to systematically trace sister chromatid segregation in distinct mitotic cell lineages. We find striking chromosome-specific biases in segregation patterns, reflecting a putative mechanism for the asymmetric segregation of genetic determinants in somatic stem cell division