1,853 research outputs found

    Model-based clustering of array CGH data

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    Motivation: Analysis of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data for recurrent DNA copy number alterations from a cohort of patients can yield distinct sets of molecular signatures or profiles. This can be due to the presence of heterogeneous cancer subtypes within a supposedly homogeneous population

    Discovery of candidate disease genes in ENU-induced mouse mutants by large-scale sequencing, including a splice-site mutation in nucleoredoxin.

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    An accurate and precisely annotated genome assembly is a fundamental requirement for functional genomic analysis. Here, the complete DNA sequence and gene annotation of mouse Chromosome 11 was used to test the efficacy of large-scale sequencing for mutation identification. We re-sequenced the 14,000 annotated exons and boundaries from over 900 genes in 41 recessive mutant mouse lines that were isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutation screen targeted to mouse Chromosome 11. Fifty-nine sequence variants were identified in 55 genes from 31 mutant lines. 39% of the lesions lie in coding sequences and create primarily missense mutations. The other 61% lie in noncoding regions, many of them in highly conserved sequences. A lesion in the perinatal lethal line l11Jus13 alters a consensus splice site of nucleoredoxin (Nxn), inserting 10 amino acids into the resulting protein. We conclude that point mutations can be accurately and sensitively recovered by large-scale sequencing, and that conserved noncoding regions should be included for disease mutation identification. Only seven of the candidate genes we report have been previously targeted by mutation in mice or rats, showing that despite ongoing efforts to functionally annotate genes in the mammalian genome, an enormous gap remains between phenotype and function. Our data show that the classical positional mapping approach of disease mutation identification can be extended to large target regions using high-throughput sequencing

    Tandem mass spectrometry data quality assessment by self-convolution

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Many algorithms have been developed for deciphering the tandem mass spectrometry (MS) data sets. They can be essentially clustered into two classes. The first performs searches on theoretical mass spectrum database, while the second based itself on <it>de novo </it>sequencing from raw mass spectrometry data. It was noted that the quality of mass spectra affects significantly the protein identification processes in both instances. This prompted the authors to explore ways to measure the quality of MS data sets before subjecting them to the protein identification algorithms, thus allowing for more meaningful searches and increased confidence level of proteins identified.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The proposed method measures the qualities of MS data sets based on the symmetric property of b- and y-ion peaks present in a MS spectrum. Self-convolution on MS data and its time-reversal copy was employed. Due to the symmetric nature of b-ions and y-ions peaks, the self-convolution result of a good spectrum would produce a highest mid point intensity peak. To reduce processing time, self-convolution was achieved using Fast Fourier Transform and its inverse transform, followed by the removal of the "DC" (Direct Current) component and the normalisation of the data set. The quality score was defined as the ratio of the intensity at the mid point to the remaining peaks of the convolution result. The method was validated using both theoretical mass spectra, with various permutations, and several real MS data sets. The results were encouraging, revealing a high percentage of positive prediction rates for spectra with good quality scores.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We have demonstrated in this work a method for determining the quality of tandem MS data set. By pre-determining the quality of tandem MS data before subjecting them to protein identification algorithms, spurious protein predictions due to poor tandem MS data are avoided, giving scientists greater confidence in the predicted results. We conclude that the algorithm performs well and could potentially be used as a pre-processing for all mass spectrometry based protein identification tools.</p

    Ectopic Wnt/Beta–Catenin Signaling Induces Neurogenesis in the Spinal Cord and Hindbrain Floor Plate

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    The most ventral structure of the developing neural tube, the floor plate (FP), differs in neurogenic capacity along the neuraxis. The FP is largely non-neurogenic at the hindbrain and spinal cord levels, but generates large numbers of dopamine (mDA) neurons at the midbrain levels. Wnt1, and other Wnts are expressed in the ventral midbrain, and Wnt/beta catenin signaling can at least in part account for the difference in neurogenic capacity of the FP between midbrain and hindbrain levels. To further develop the hypothesis that canonical Wnt signaling promotes mDA specification and FP neurogenesis, we have generated a model wherein beta–catenin is conditionally stabilized throughout the FP. Here, we unambiguously show by fate mapping FP cells in this mutant, that the hindbrain and spinal cord FP are rendered highly neurogenic, producing large numbers of neurons. We reveal that a neurogenic hindbrain FP results in the altered settling pattern of neighboring precerebellar neuronal clusters. Moreover, in this mutant, mDA progenitor markers are induced throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the hindbrain FP, although TH+ mDA neurons are produced only in the rostral aspect of rhombomere (r)1. This is, at least in part, due to depressed Lmx1b levels by Wnt/beta catenin signaling; indeed, when Lmx1b levels are restored in this mutant, mDA are observed not only in rostral r1, but also at more caudal axial levels in the hindbrain, but not in the spinal cord. Taken together, these data elucidate both patterning and neurogenic functions of Wnt/beta catenin signaling in the FP, and thereby add to our understanding of the molecular logic of mDA specification and neurogenesis

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

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    This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smokin
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